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Duck ragout with mustard croutes recipe

Duck ragout with mustard croutes recipe

  • Recipes
  • Ingredients
  • Meat and poultry
  • Poultry
  • Duck
  • Duck leg

Duck legs become beautifully succulent when slow-cooked with wine and vegetables, and are very lean without the skin. Boiling the cooking liquid to reduce it results in a sauce with a wonderful flavour, which is great soaked up by the crisp, piquant bread croutes that accompany the dish.

2 people made this

IngredientsServes: 4

  • 1 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
  • 4 duck leg joints, about 800–900 g (1¾–2 lb) in total, skinned
  • 250 g (8½ oz) button mushrooms
  • 250 g (8½ oz) pickling onions, shallots or button onions
  • 2–4 garlic cloves, finely chopped
  • ½ tsp dried thyme
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 300 ml (10 fl oz) red wine
  • 750 ml (1¼ pints) chicken stock, preferably home-made
  • 250 g (8½ oz) baby carrots
  • 250 g (8½ oz) baby turnips, halved if large
  • 250 g (8½ oz) sugarsnap peas
  • 2 tsp redcurrant jelly
  • salt and pepper
  • sprigs of fresh mint to garnish
  • Mustard croutes
  • 1 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
  • 1 tbsp Dijon mustard
  • 12 thick slices of French bread

MethodPrep:30min ›Cook:1hr30min ›Ready in:2hr

  1. Heat the oil in a large flameproof casserole over a moderate heat. Add the duck and cook for about 10 minutes, turning the pieces so that they brown lightly on both sides. Use a draining spoon to transfer the duck to a plate.
  2. Add the mushrooms, onions, garlic, thyme and bay leaf to the casserole. Increase the heat slightly and fry for 4 minutes, stirring frequently, until the vegetables begin to colour.
  3. Pour in the wine and let it bubble briefly. Return the duck to the pan with any accumulated juices. Add the stock and bring to the boil. Reduce the heat to low, cover the casserole and simmer, stirring occasionally, for 30 minutes. Add the carrots and turnips, pushing them into the liquid. Cover and continue simmering for 15 minutes. Add the sugarsnap peas and cook for a further 5–10 minutes or until the duck and vegetables are tender
  4. Meanwhile, make the croutes. Preheat the oven to 190ºC (375ºF, gas mark 5). Mix the oil with the mustard and spread thinly over the slices of bread. Place on a baking tray and bake for 10–12 minutes or until crisp and browned.
  5. If necessary, use a metal spoon to skim off any fat from the surface of the liquid in the casserole. Place a colander or strainer over a large saucepan. Drain the duck and vegetables, then return them to the casserole, discarding the bay leaf. Cover the casserole and set it aside. Boil the strained cooking liquid vigorously over a high heat for about 10–12 minutes or until reduced by about half to a rich, full-flavoured sauce. Stir in the redcurrant jelly until it has melted, then add seasoning to taste.
  6. Arrange the croutes on the duck and vegetables – any that do not fit in the casserole can be served separately. Spoon the sauce over the top, allowing some to soak into the croutes. Garnish with mint sprigs and serve.

Some more ideas

Guinea fowl or pheasant portions are also delicious cooked this way, as are chicken leg quarters. For chicken you could use white wine for a lighter sauce. * Another alternative is venison, which goes very well with the robust flavours in the red wine sauce. Use 4 small tender venison steaks, about 800–900 g (1¾–2 lb) in total, and brown them briefly on both sides in step 1. * Vary the vegetables according to what is available. Scrubbed Fir Apple potatoes are a delicious addition and baby parsnips can be used instead of the turnips. Try French beans or baby courgettes instead of the sugarsnap peas or substitute button Brussels sprouts.

Plus points

Duck is a good source of many of the B vitamins, iron and zinc. Weight for weight, it contains over twice as much B1 and B2 as chicken, and three times as much iron. * Red wine is rich in flavonoids, which can help to protect against heart disease and stroke. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Pinot Noir wines, particularly from Chile, have higher levels of flavonoids than other wines.

Each serving provides

B6, B12, C, copper, iron, phosphorus * A, B1, B2, folate, niacin, calcium * potassium, selenium, zinc

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From The Cooking of Southwest France: Recipes from France's Magnificent Rustic Cuisine The Cooking of Southwest France by Paula Wolfert

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Ten Years of Favorite Recipes

Today marks my completion of a decade of writing this blog. The culinary adventures (both successful and not so) about which I’ve told stories each week have given me great pleasure. To celebrate my tenth anniversary, this post will be a retrospective of some of the dishes I’ve most enjoyed making, eating, and writing about – one for each year.

You’ll notice a strong Western European emphasis in the choices here. That’s a reflection of Tom’s and my general eating preferences, but I’ve actually written about dishes from 24 countries in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. I could have featured many of those others among these favorites.

Clicking on an image below will open the full post about the dish.

Prosciutto-wrapped Broiled Shrimp

My first blogging year was devoted to one new recipe a week from one of the 200+ cookbooks in my collection. This one, from Ada Boni’s classic Il Talismano della Felicità, makes as good an appetizer as it did a main course.

Plum Cake Cockaigne

From my second year, I began including posts about recipes I’d previously known and loved. This one, from Irma Rombauer’s Joy of Cooking, has been a late-summer favorite in our household for more years than I can remember.

Traditional Paella Valenciana

I found recipes for this relatively simple paella in two cookbooks: Penelope Casas’ Food and Wines of Spain, and Teresa Barrenechea’s Cuisines of Spain. Both looked good, so I drew steps from both recipes.

Bluefish Gravlax

Here, I adapted a salmon gravlax recipe from the Cooking of Scandinavia volume of the Time-Life Foods of the World series for local bluefish. I also made the book’s cucumber relish and mustard-dill sauce.

Tripe in Golden Fontina Sauce

This is my own version of trippa alla valdostana, from Tom’s and my book The Seasons of the Italian Kitchen. It makes a remarkably rich, mellow, elegant dish – if I do say so myself.

Pheasant Pie with Noodles and Mushrooms

Under this pastry crust is faisan à la vosgienne, made from an Alsace recipe in Anne Willan’s French Regional Cooking. Pheasant, noodles, mushrooms, sauce, and pastry were all lavishly endowed with butter.

Chickpea and Cuttlefish Stew

Penelope Casas’s book La Cocina di Mama: The Great Home Cooking of Spain provided the recipe for this Andalucian dish intriguingly spiced with hot red pepper, sweet smoked paprika, and garlic.

Poulet Marengo

Anyone familiar with my food preferences will know I couldn’t let this retrospective go by without including at least one chicken dish. This is a classic from Robert Courtine’s The Hundred Glories of French Cooking.

Veselka’s Borscht

The Ukrainian restaurant Veselka, in NYC’s East Village neighborhood, serves the best borscht I’ve ever tasted or can imagine tasting. Making a batch of it from the place’s own cookbook was a major accomplishment for me.

Apple-Stuffed Pork Roast

Apples, bacon, butter, mushrooms, onions, sage, a pinch of sugar, and a touch of wine vinegar made a delightful stuffing for roasted pork. It’s a recipe I clipped from Saveur magazine and pasted in my big recipe binder.

So: 10 years, 512 posts, recipes from 120 cookbooks, as well as a few from magazines, newspapers, and the internet. I’ve learned a lot about food and cooking from all this. Now I plan to take the month of January off, to think about how I’d like to position my blog for the coming years.

Duck ragout with mustard croutes recipe - Recipes

Our first night in the kitchen! I was so excited :) Our teacher was Hermann Jenny, in the middle in the photo below. He and his wife Susan own Les Tuillères. He is a trained professional chef who has managed several luxury restaurants in Europe and Asia. I knew that S and I were going to learn a lot, and over the next week we did — not just about cooking and eating, but also techniques, the agricultural roots of Provence, and the philosophical side of food and wine appreciation.

Finding out that we were going to make magret de canard in our first class was a very nice surprise. We had only been in Provence two nights and had already seen this dish on two different menus, stuffed with chèvre at La Fontaine Minérale, and with honey, peaches and pears at Les Voyageurs.

Hermann's is a tender, pan-roasted version marinated in red wine, soy sauce and Dijon mustard. He showed us how to trim the excess duck fat and score what remained. We also learned that if you double a quantity of meat, you only need to increase the marinade by 50 per cent. The final dish is served with a creamy mashed potato and drizzled over with a rich, flavoursome sauce that looks like purple velvet. So beautifully unctuous, as Nigella Lawson might say )

There were four people taking cooking classes, S and I and two French people. We were all raised our eyebrows when Hermann told us we would be cooking for 18 that night — I thought we'd just cook for ourselves, but no, you cook for every guest paying for the table d'hôte!

We made a five-course meal, and ate it outside on a big, long table in Les Tuillères' beautiful courtyard. On the menu was aioli, a garlicky mayonnaise that the Provençales use as a dipping sauce with blanched vegetables, an eggplant risotto as an entrée (the first course), magret de canard and mashed potato, a plate full of local cheeses, and dessert, a fig and apple crumble that we made with fresh fruit from the garden.

Hermann and Susan are kindly letting me publish a few recipes to share with beFOODled readers, so without further ado, here is how to make magret de canard à la Les Tuillières (already taste-tested and heartily approved of by some discerning girlfriends in Ottawa).

Duck breast (magret de canard) with herbs
serves four

2 duck breasts, 12 oz. each
1/2 Tbsp olive oil
2 Tbsp butter
salt and pepper

2/3 cup red wine
3 Tbsp soy sauce
1 Tbsp Dijon mustard
1 shallot, roughly sliced
2 Tbsp olive oil
2 cloves garlic, roughly sliced
1 Tbsp herbes de Provence
freshly ground pepper

Prepare the marinade and trim the duck breasts of excess fat. Marinate the duck for one to two hours in the fridge.

Set the duck aside and reduce the marinade by half in a saucepan. Brown the duck breasts in a separate sauce pan — about seven minutes with the fat side down, and three on the meat side.

Remove the duck and keep it warm on a covered plate.

Return the pan to the heat and add the reduced and strained marinade. Simmer for a couple of minutes. Season, take of the heat and add the butter cubes.

Serve alongside mashed potatoes with sauce drizzled over. You will love this!

Posted by Asha at beFOODled at 9:18 PM  


Hi - just found your blog - because I searched for reciped for Magret de canard. my husband and I just moved to france from Los Angeles and I'm making duck and I'm trying the recipe that you did in Provence. I'm sure it will be trés bon!

Hi Juicy, I checked out your blog and what I would give to spend a whole year in France! Lucky you. I hope you enjoy the duck! Let me know how it turns out.

Just found your blog, I have been emailing Susan all week, we are planning a visit in June..your post gets me very excited to go..what a feast you prepared!

Friday, April 10, 2009

Sugar shock

Sure, there were inevitable effects of consuming roughly a gallon of maple syrup and maple syrup products (from fèves au lard, to tire d'érable, to roughly eight cups of maple syrup-sweetened coffee), but the real shock came from finding ourselves at a sugar shack that actually serves good food in a low-key, honest-to-goodness, relatively kitsch-free atmosphere.

For a couple of years now, we'd been hearing that Rigaud's Sucrerie de la Montagne was a cut above. An enthusiastic review in The New York Times earlier this year seemed to confirm these reports. So we rounded up a gang of sugar-shack seekers and checked things out for ourselves. And, I have to say, we were impressed. The meal wasn't absolutely perfect--we had quibbles with the quality of the ham, the pie crust used for both the tourtière and the tarte au sucre, etc., and we still believe that if you want a truly exceptional sugar shack meal, DIY is the way to go*--but it was much better than average, they served some ultra-traditional dishes that I hadn't seen at sugar shacks before (like ragoût de boulettes), and the overall experience (location, aura, music, service, ambiance) was the best we've encountered, and that's something that's hard to duplicate at home.

We liked the look of the place from the moment we set eyes on it.

Sucrerie de la Montagne is so close to Montreal, too. You barely leave the island and you're already there. It's possibly even a little too close. Rang St-Georges is pretty developed. But turn in to Sucrerie de la Montagne's parking lot, and suddenly the modern world fades into the distance a little.

It was almost worth going for the cart ride alone. The cart driver was a true prince. Great personality and a beautiful accent.

Michelle felt a little sorry for the horses, though, because of the way they got stuck with their hooves in a puddle while I took a picture of them. She decided to join them, in a show of solidarity. So I took a picture of her, too.

Sucrerie de la Montagne doubles as an auberge--they've got a couple of rustic cabins that you can rent out all year long--at pretty reasonable rates, too. We've already made tentative plans to return mid-winter next year. Do a little snowshoeing, read some books by the fireplace, and emerge every now and then to eat a hearty québécois meal--who can argue with that? All of the accommodations were nice, but this cabin was our favorite.

Sucrerie de la Montagne is a fairly old-school sucrerie. The evaporator was running on firewood, and when you headed into the woods, it was sap buckets as far as the eye could see, not that space-age plastic tubing you see at most sucreries these days.

fig. e: sugar bush & sap buckets

We were happy to see that the buckets were from our friends at D & G.

Inside, the vibe was vintage, through and through.

The sucrerie itself was a grand old structure, with one main dining hall, and one set of smaller dining rooms, each one with their own band. Our party of nine got seated at a long table in the main dining hall, and not long afterwards the first course (pea soup) was served, the band (Les Cornus) got fired up, the kids started dancing, and the next thing we knew, we were off.

Sugaring-off season is short, so if you'd like to take in a traditional sugar shack meal at Sucrerie de la Montagne, you gotta act fast.

Sucrerie de la Montagne, 300 Rang St-Georges, Rigaud, QC, (450) 451-0831

* Then again, we haven't tried Au Pied de Cochon's brand-new sugar shack yet, but we've heard nothing but raves. We're slated to go later this month, before the season is over. You can expect a full report.

Duck ragout with mustard croutes recipe - Recipes

The chicken in this salad is deliciously crispy and caramelized because of the skin. We deboned chicken thighs prior to cooking, but kept the skin on. For some reason I cannot find thighs with skin but no bones - they seem to come either with or without both. If anyone knows where to get them deboned/skin on, please let me know! Until then I'll continue to do it this way - deboning's a bit of work, but well worth it for the flavour and crispiness.

Chicken salad with arugula, oranges and almonds
Serves two
a couple of handfuls of arugula
one orange
a few artichokes from a jar
handful of almonds
two chicken thighs
dijon mustard
ponzu sauce (a Japanese citrus dressing)
olive oil
salt and pepper

Prepare the chicken by deboning the thighs, but leaving the skin on. Turn skin side up on the cutting board, and season the skin side with salt and pepper. Heat a frying pan on medium heat. Do not add oil because you will be frying the chicken in the fat from its own skin. When the pan is hot, add the chicken thighs skin side down. Let them cook about two-thirds of the way up, until they curl up and start to brown and crisp up. While they are cooking, season the other side of the thighs now facing up in the pan.

When the skin side is cooked, turn the thighs over and cook the other side for another five minutes or so. When cooked, remove from pan and place on a plate to rest. Slice each thigh into pieces that you put on top of the salad.

Prepare the salad by washing and drying the arugula, peeling and slicing the orange, and halving the artichoke quarters. Roughly chop the almonds and lightly toast in a frying pan. Tip the almonds onto a cutting board to cool as soon as they have finished to prevent them from browning further in the pan. Put all of these ingredients in a big salad bowl.

Prepare the dressing by mixing a little bit of Dijon mustard with a couple Tablespoons of ponzu sauce, and add olive oil to make into a dressing consistency. Pour over salad and toss. Top with chicken slices and serve.

Welcome to La Belle Province de Quebec

Quebec's Maple Sugar Shacks Quebecs-Maple-Sugar-Shack-Challenge
Challenge Yourself with Le Belle Province Quiz Challenge-Yourself-with-Le-Belle-Province-Quiz
A Day of Traditional French-Canadian Cooking: A-DAY-OF-TRADITIONAL-FRENCH-COOKING

All extra French-Canadian recipes made and reviewed should be reported in this thread.

Bienvenue! Welcome to Quebec - La Belle Province

Canada's largest province is a mix of old world charm and modern sophistication. Sculptured over the ages by the sea and the wind, the landscapes are simply stunning. Dotted with picturesque villages, crowned with Appalachian summits on the south side and by the Canadian Shield on the north side, it is a region of contrasting landscapes where 10 national parks showcase their natural treasures. T he architecture in Quebec has been influenced by Europeans, the climate and the size of the families, all helping to make the beauty that is Quebec.

Quebec which is nearly three times the size of France or Texas borders on Ontario, James Bay, Hudson Bay (west) Hudson Strait, Ungava Bay (north) Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Newfoundland and Labrador (east) New Brunswick, the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York (south). It also shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia.

Most Quebecois live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, with approximately half of Quebec residents living in Montreal and the Greater Montreal Area. English speaking communities are located to the west of Montreal, and also in the Outaousai, Eastern Townships and the Gaspe regions.

The Nord-du-Quebec region, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by First Nation peoples. The ten tribes that form the First Nation people are: Abernaki tribe, Algonquin tribe, Attikamek tribe, Eastern Cree, Huron tribe, Maliseet, Micmac tribe, Montagnais, Naskapi and the Ojibway. The Métis in Quebec and the rest of Canada are a people with their own unique culture, traditions, way of life, collective consciousness and nationhood.

The Inuit communities of Quebec are located in the northernmost part of the province, in Nunavik. Over the centuries, Inuit have ingenuously adapted to the severe Arctic. This desert of ice holds few secrets from them, in fact, more than simply surviving, the Inuit have learnt to live gracefully with the cold. With surprising skill and swiftness, the most experienced guides are able to erect shelters with the North's most abundant material: snow. Nunavik is an ideal location for outdoor activities dogsledding, snowmobiling, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing.

The Québec City area has more classified religious heritage sites than anywhere else, it harbours the continent’s oldest Catholic pilgrimage site outside of Mexico. An incredible wealth of religious diversity that can be felt in more than 130 churches, 20 conventual chapels, two cathedrals and two basilicas. They truly are awe inspiring.

Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré Basilica

Québec's 450 + museums deal with extremely varied subjects such as art, history, ethnology, architecture, sciences and technologies,
the natural and environmental sciences, etc.

Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

It is home to the famous circus troup . Le Cirque du Soleil.

You can't mention Quebec without mentioning hockey. It is the national sport and is watched religiously. The home town heroes the Montreal Canadiens are in the NHL (National Hockey League) and have won the Stanley Cup 24 times. Other major sports include Canadian Football - Montreal Alouettes, soccer with the Montreal Impact, the Grand Prix du Canada - Formula 1 racing with drivers Gilles and Jacques Villeneuve, professional baseball with the former Montreal Expos.

Quebec's cuisine has strong French, Irish and First Nation influences and was was largely shaped by the difficult early years after it was settled. Enduring harsh winters and having many mouths to feed with little to eat, people required dishes with real substance. Quebec is most famous for Maple Syrup, Poutine, Tourtiere, Buche de Noel, Pate Chinois, Foie Gras, Oka cheese and spruce beer.

The temps des sucres (sugar season) is one of the oldest of Quebec culinary traditions. In the spring, Quebecers go to the cabane a sucre (sugar house) for traditional meals such as eggs, baked beans, ham, oreilles de crisse, bacon, which is then covered in maple syrup. They will enjoy horse-drawn sleigh rides in the woods and sugar on snow (tire sur la neige) — boiled maple tree sap dribbled over snow, which then hardens like candy.

Many traditional dishes are special holiday fare. Reveillon is a long dinner party, held on Christmas Eve or New Year's Eve. The meal will be large, rich and delicious, with pork and seafood, and several sweet dishes. Most homes serve traditional savory dishes like Tourtière, Bouilli, Ragoût de pattes de porc and Ragoût de Boulettes. Sweet dishes may include Buche de Noel, Tarte au Sucre, Pouding Chômeur, Grands-Peres A L'erable and Pets de Nonne.

The Jewish community of Montreal has contributed Montreal style bagels and Montreal style smoked meat, which are not to be missed. Quebec has produced beer since the beginning of colonization when they first made spruce beer today there are nearly a hundred breweries and companies. Wine, ice wine and ice cider are also produced here. Quebec has produced cheese for centuries, today over 300 different varieties are available in Quebec.

Quebec is a land rich in resources.

Maple Products - Syrup, Candy, Fudge, Cream, Sugar, Ice Cream, Beer, Wine
Vegetables - Fiddleheads, Asparagus, Artichoke, Potato, Turnip, Rutabaga, Leeks, Spanish/Red/Yellow/Green Onions, Shallots, Corn,Tomato, Cucumber, Pickles, Broad/Green/Yellow Beans, Peas, Carrots, Parsnips, Hot Peppers, Celery, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Squash, Pumpkin, Zucchini, Eggplant, Spinach, Swiss Chard, Mushrooms, Radish, Radish Leaf, Chinese/Napa/Green/Red Cabbages, Brussel /Sprouts, Endive, Radicchio, Fennel, Boston/Leaf/Head/Romaine Lettuce
Fruit - Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, Cantaloupe, Red/Black Currants, Gooseberries, Strawberries, Raspberries, Blueberries, Cranberries, Watermelons, Rhubarb
Dairy - Farm house butter, Milk, Cream, Heavy Cream, Sour Cream, Yogurt, Ice Cream
Cheese - Oka, Laliberté, Louis d'Or, Crème de Beloeil, Fromagerie La Moutonniere, Le Cendré de Lune, Le Lady Laurier d’Arthabaska, Le Chèvre Des Neiges à la Figue et à L'orange, Le Double Joie, La Roche Noire, La Tentation de Laurier, Le Migneron de Charlevoix, Pied-de-Vent, Lechevalier Mailloux, Ciel de Charlevoix, Chevre Noir lait cru, Victor and Berthold Cheese, Ermite Bleu, Au Gré des Champs, Perron extra-sharp cheddar, Mamirolle, Blue, Cheddar, Brie, Goat, Raw milk cheeses, White/Orange Cheese Curds
Bread - Pain de Origin, Mont Royal Miche, Baugette, Petit Reconfort, Croissant, Au Pain Gruël, Montreal Style - Bagels Plain/Sesame/Poppyseed/Raisin, Rye, Pumpernickle, Cornbread, Biscuits, Scones
Grains - Oats, Rye, Buckwheat, Barley, Spelt, Kamut, Soy - Sobaya noodles
Spices - Montreal Spice Rub, Tourtiere Spices, Hunters Spice - Small Game, Gaspesian Salmon Rub, Beef Spice, Smoked Spices, Salt, Pepper, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, Allspice, Cloves, Ginger
Herbs - Parsley, Rosemary, Thyme, Savory, Bay leaf, Basil, Oregano, Tarragon, Sage, Garlic, Salted Herbs, Quebec Herb Blend
Honey - Blueberry/Buckwheat/Clover/Wildflower/Comb/Raw/Whipped and Pollen
Jellies and Jams - Strawberries, Blueberries, Raspberries, Gooseberries, Crab Apple, Spiced Apple, Cherry, Plum, Pear, Rose, Rhubarb
Gravy - Onion, Mushroom, Brown, Red Wine, Tomato Sauce, Poutine Sauce
Condiments - Green Tomato Ketchup, Ketchup, White Vinegar, Red Tomato Chow, Green Tomato Chow, Cranberry Sauce
Baking - Flour, White/Wheat/Rye, Cornmeal, White/Brown Sugar, Molasses, Baking Powder, Baking Soda, Vanilla, Free Range Eggs
Seafood - Lobster, Snow Crab, Scallops, Oysters, Blue Mussels, Northern Shrimp
Fish - Salmon, Turbot, White Perch, Northern Pike, Walleye, Bass - smallmouth/largemouth, Longnose Gar, Whitefish, Sea Lamprey, Rainbow Smelt, Rainbow Trout, Brown Trout, Lake Trout, Sturgeon, Muskellunge, Caviar- Broad Whitefish and Trout, Sturgeon, Muskellunge, Smoked fish, Eel, Seal
Wild Game - White Tailed Deer, Moose, Caribou, Wild Boar, Bear, Beaver, Rabbit, Hare
Wild Fowl - Canadian Geese, Snow Geese, Mallard and Teal Ducks, Foie Gras, Wild Turkey, Quail, Grouse, Partridge, Ptarmigan
Meats - Pork, Salt Pork, Deep Fried Smoked Pork Jowls, Bacon, Peameal Bacon, Ham, Weiners, Sausages, Beef, Veal, Chicken, Emu, Salt Marsh Lamb, Montreal Smoked Meat
Beverages - Apple Cider, Spruce Beer, Fruit Wines, Ice Wines, Iced Ciders, Wine, Beers - Blonde and Rousse, Caribou Drink, Hot Chocolate - Chocolat Chaud
Wild Edible Plants - agoseris, arrowhead, asparagus, bedstraw (aka cleavers), bistort, bittercress, bracken, bugleweed, bulrush, burdock, canada lily, carrion flower, catnip, cattail, chickweed, chicory, chufa, clover, cocklebur, coltsfoot, common orache, common sweet clover, coneflower, cow-lily, groundnut (aka potato bean), high mallow, hyssop, indian pipe (aka ghost plant), jerusalem artichoke, knotweed, lamb's quarter (aka pigweed), marsh-marigold, mayapple, mountain sorrel, musk mallow, mustard, northern water plantain, oxeye daisy, pearly everlasting, peppergrass, pickerel weed, pickleweed (aka glasswort, sea asparagus, pigweed, pineapple-weed, plantain, quickweed, roseroot, salsify (aka goatsbeard, oyster plant), sea milkwort (aka sea milweed) seaside sandplant (aka sea sandwort, beach greens), self heal, sheep sorrel, shepherd's purse, silverweed (aka cinquefoil), sow thistle, speedwell (aka brooklime, gypsyweed), stinging nettle, stonecrop, stork's bill, strawberry blite, swamp hedge nettle (aka marsh woundwort), sweet gale (aka bog myrtl), sweetflag, thistle, violet, watercress, wild bergamot (aka horsemint), wild ginger, wild mint, wild rose, wood betony, wood lily, wood sorrel, yellow clintonia, yellow cress.

Food Glossary & Classic French Garnishes

À emporter (adj) to go (as opposed to sur place, for here).
À l’ancienne old-fashioned, as in une baguette à l’ancienne.
À point (adj) medium rare.
Abats (m. pl.) offal.
Abricot (m) apricot.
Addition (f) check/bill.
Agneau (m) lamb.
Agrume (m) citrus.
Aiguillette (f) in a bird (mostly duck or chicken), the tip of the breast meat.
Ail (m) garlic.
Algue (f) seaweed.
Aligot (m) potatoes mashed with fresh mountain cheese a specialty from Auvergne.
Amande (f) almond.
Amuse-bouche (m) or amuse-gueule. Savory nibbles served before the meal, to arouse the appetite.
Ananas (m) pineapple.
Andouillette (f) chitterlings sausage.
Aneth (m) dill.
AOC (f) Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée. A certification granted to certain food items (such as varieties of cheese or produce) made in a specific area, according to a specific production process.
Apéritif (m) or apéro. A pre-dinner drink. Also: a general term for the drinks and savory nibbles served before dinner. It is also a widespread custom to invite people over just for l’apéro, which is a more casual way to entertain than a full-blown dinner invitation.
Arachide (f) peanut.
Assiette (f) plate.
Aubergine (f) eggplant.
Avant-goût (m) foretaste.
Avoine (m) oat.

Baba au rhum (m) a spongy yeast cake soaked with rum syrup, often served with whipped cream.
Badiane (f) star anise.
Bar (m) bar, or sea bass.
Basilic (m) basil.
Bavette (f) skirt steak.
Beaufort (m) firm cow cheese from the area of Beaufort, in the French Alps.
Beignet (m) fritter, donut.
Berceuse (f) mezza-luna a chopping tool with two handles and two half-moon blades. Literally: lullaby, because of the rocking movement made while using it.
Betterave (f) beetroot.
Beurre (m) butter. Beurre doux is unsalted, beurre salé is salted.
Bien cuit (adj) well done.
Bière (f) beer.
Bigorneau (m) winkle.
Bio (adj) (short for biologique) organic.
Biscotte (f) rusk.
Biscuit (m) cookie.
Biscuit rose de Reims (m) a pink, rectangular ladyfinger and a specialty from Reims, it was designed for dipping in a glass of Champagne. It keeps its shape when moistened, which makes it perfect for charlottes.
Blanc (adj) white.
(m) breast meat.
Blanc-manger (m) a set pudding made with almond milk.
Blanquette (f) a creamy stew, generally of veal, cooked with carrots, onions, and mushrooms.
Blé (m) wheat.
Blettes (f. pl.) also: bettes. Swiss chard.
Bleu (adj) very rare. Literally: blue.
Boeuf (m) beef.
Boeuf bourguignon (m) a stew of beef, red wine, and vegetables a specialty from Burgundy.
Bonbon (m) candy.
Bouchon (m) cork.
Boudin antillais (m) spicy blood sausage. A twist on boudin noir and a specialty from the Antilles, the French Carribeans.
Boudin blanc (m) a soft white sausage.
Boudin noir (m) blood sausage.
Bouteille (f) bottle.
Brandade de morue (f) salt cod mashed with olive oil and milk until smooth sometimes made with potatoes, too a specialty from Provence.
Brasserie (f) originally, a restaurant that served beer (the literal meaning of brasserie is brewery) and a simple hearty fare, often of Alsatian inspiration. The term is now used, more broadly, for traditional restaurants that are larger than bistros and offer a longer menu served around the clock (choucroute, grilled meat, shellfish platters, etc.).
Bresaola (f) air-dried Italian beef.
Brick (f) (alternate spelling: brik) a very thin wheat dough used in North African cuisine, similar to phyllo dough but slightly thicker and grainier.
Brioche (f) a lightly sweet yeast pastry, made with eggs and butter.
Brochet (m) pike.
Brochette (f) skewer.
Brousse (f) a type of fresh cheese from Provence. It is called brocciu when made in Corsica.
Brut (adj) crude, rough.
Bulot (m) whelk.

Cabillaud (m) cod.
Cacahuète (f) peanut.
Café (m) coffee when ordered in a café or restaurant: espresso.
Café allongé (m) espresso with added water.
Café crème (m) coffee with milk.
Cake (m) a cake baked in a loaf pan.
Calamar (m) squid.
Calisson (m) an almond shaped confection from Aix-en-Provence, made with almond paste, sugar, and crystallized melons, with wafer paper at the bottom and a crisp sugar glaze on top.
Canard (m) duck.
Canelé (m) (alternate spelling: cannelé) a small cake from the city of Bordeaux, caramelized and crusty on the outside, soft and chewy on the inside.
Cantine (f) school or office cafeteria, it is sometimes used to mean a restaurant that has a laid-back and relaxed atmosphere, and where you could see yourself having lunch or dinner everyday.
Caquelon (m) fondue pot.
Carambole (f) starfruit.
Caramel au beurre salé (m) salted butter caramel.
Carbonade flamande (f) a stew of beef, beer, and onions a specialty from the French Flanders and Belgium.
Cari (m) curry (in créole cuisine).
Carré (m) rack (as in a rack of lamb). Literally: square.
Carte (f) menu.
Carte des vins (f) wine list.
Cassis (m) blackcurrant.
Cassonade (f) a soft brown cane sugar.
Cassoulet (m) a stew from the South-West of France, involving white kidney beans and various meats cooked in goose fat.
Céleri-rave (m) celery root.
Cèpe (m) porcino mushroom.
Céréale (f) grain.
Cerfeuil (m) chervil.
Cerise (f) cherry.
Cervelle de canut (f) fromage blanc flavored with herbs and garlic a specialty from Lyon. Literally: silkweaver’’s brain (silkweaving was the traditional craft of Lyon).
Chalumeau (m) blowtorch can be used to caramelize the sugar topping on crèmes brûlées.
Champignon (m) mushroom.
Chapelure (f) dried breadcrumbs.
Charcuterie (f) a store halfway between a butcher’s shop and a deli. Also, the variety of sausages and pork products (jambon, saucisson, salami, mortadelle, pâté…) sold in such stores.
(f) a no-bake dessert in which the mold is lined with ladyfingers, then filled with layers of fruit, and layers of custard or fromage blanc.
(f) a variety of small potatoes, tender-fleshed and sweet.
Châtaigne (f) chestnut.
Chatini (m) créole chutney.
Chaud (adj) hot (temperature).
Chauve-souris (f) bat.
(f) goat.
(m) short for fromage de chèvre, goat cheese.
Chichi (m) an elongated donut similar to the Spanish churro, usually sold by beach-side vendors, rolled in sugar and served in a paper wrapping. Sometimes called chouchou.
Chicorée (f) chicory.
Chipiron (m) small squid.
Chocolat (m) the best edible thing on Earth.
Chocolat au lait (m) milk chocolate.
Chocolat blanc (m) white chocolate.
Chocolat noir (m) dark chocolate.
Chocolatier (m) an artisan who makes and sells chocolate confections.
Chocolatière (f) like a teapot, but for hot chocolate.
Chou (m) cabbage. Chou rouge (red cabbage), chou blanc (white cabbage), chou frisé (Savoy cabbage), chou-fleur (cauliflower)…
Chou à la crème (m) cream puff.
Choucroute (f) sauerkraut.
Choucroute garnie (f) sauerkraut served with assorted sausages and cured meats.
Chouquette (m) a golf-ball-sized pastry puff sprinkled with pearl sugar.
Ciboulette (f) chive.
Citron (m) lemon.
Citron vert (m) lime.
Citronnade (f) lemonade.
Citronnelle (f) lemongrass.
Civet (m) stew.
Clafoutis (m) a simple, grandmotherly dessert in which a pudding batter (usually made of flour, sugar, milk and eggs, sometimes butter) is poured over fruit (most commonly cherries, to makeclafoutis aux cerises) and baked. A specialty from the Limousin region.
Clou de girofle (m) clove.
Cochon (m) pig.
Coco-fesse (f) a coconut shaped exactly like a pair of buttocks that’s unique to the Seychelles and is said to have aphrodisiacal virtues.
Cocotte (f) a heavy (most often cast-iron) pot with a lid.
Cocotte-minute (f) pressure cooker.
Coing (m) quince.
Cointreau (m) an orange-flavored liqueur. (Cointreau is a brand name.)
Colvert (m) mallard. Literally: green neck.
Complet (adj) full (for a restaurant), or whole (for a grain).
Compote (f) a dessert made of fruits cooked slowly with sugar or syrup. Also used, by extension, for vegetables or meat cooked the same way.
Comptoir (m) counter.
Comté (m) semi-firm cow cheese from the Jura, a mountain range in the East of France.
Confit (m) applies to any preparation that’s cooked in its own fat, or cooked slowly until very soft.
Confit de canard (m) a duck leg, salted and cooked slowly, then packed in its own fat. A typical dish from the South-West of France.
Confiture (f) jam.
Confiture d’oignon (f) onion jam.
Confiture de lait (f) milk jam. It is the French equivalent of dulce de leche, i.e. a creamy caramel spread made with evaporated milk and sugar.
Confrérie (f) brotherhood.
Coque (à la) (f) in the shell. Oeuf à la coque is a soft-boiled egg served in the shell.
Coquetier (m) egg cup.
Coquillage (m) seashell, or shellfish.
Coquille Saint-Jacques (f) sea scallop.
Coriandre (f) cilantro/coriander.
Cornichon (m) gherkin.
Côte (f) rib, or chop.
Côtelette (f) chop.
Courge (f) squash.
Courgette (f) zucchini.
Couteau (m) knife.
Crème anglaise (f) vanilla custard sauce.
Crème brûlée (f) a custard-like dessert served in a round and shallow earthenware ramekin, and sprinkled with a layer of sugar that’s blowtorched into a caramel crust just before serving. Literally: burnt cream.
Crème de cassis (f) blackcurrant liqueur, typically blended with white wine to make a kir cocktail.
Crème de marron (f) sweetened chestnut purée.
Crème fleurette (f) also: crème liquide. Whipping cream.
Crème fraîche (f) thick, slightly sour cream, that doesn’t curdle when heated (it’s the fat content, you see…). Substitute heavy cream or sour cream, preferably a mix of the two.
Crêpe (f) large and thin pancake. A specialty from Brittany.
Crêperie (f) restaurant that specializes in crêpes and galettes.
Cresson (m) watercress.
Crevette (f) shrimp.
Croquant de Provence (m) a crunchy almond cookie from Provence.
Croque au sel (à la) (f) a style of eating raw vegetables, with salt as the only seasoning. Used for radishes especially (radis à la croque au sel).
Croque-madame (m) a croque-monsieur with a fried egg on top.
Croque-monsieur (m) a grilled sandwich of cheese and ham, sometimes topped with a béchamel sauce.
(adj) crisp.
(m) any crisp preparation.
Croûte (f) crust.
Cru (adj) raw.
Cuillère (f) (Alternate spelling: cuiller) spoon.
Cuisse (f) thigh.
Cuit (adj) cooked.

Datte (f) date (the fruit).
Daurade (f) sea bream.
Déca (m) decaffeinated espresso.
Dégustation (f) tasting.
(m) lunch.
(v) to have lunch.
Délice (m) delight.
Délicieux (adj) delicious.
Demi (prefix) half- (as in demi-baguette).
Digestif (m) after-dinner drink, usually a brandy such as Armagnac or Cognac.
(m) dinner.
(v) to have dinner.
Doux (adj) soft, or mild.
Droguerie (f) hardware store. Despite the name, does not sell drugs, legal or otherwise.
Droit de bouchon (m) corkage fee.

Échalote (f) shallot.
Écorce d’orange confite (f) candied orange peel.
Écrevisse (f) crayfish.
Épaule (f) shoulder.
Épeautre (m) spelt.
Épice (f) spice.
Épicé (adj) spicy.
Épicerie (f) old-fashioned grocery store.
Épinard (m) spinach.
Érable (m) maple.
Eau (f) water.
Eau du robinet (f) tap water.
Entrecôte (f) rib steak.
Entrée (f) first course.
Escargot (m) snail.
Espadon (m) swordfish.
Estragon (m) tarragon.

Faire moit’ moit’ (v) to split dishes. Short for moitié moitié, which means “half half”.
Farci (adj) stuffed, as in “stuffed zucchini”, not “I’m stuffed” (that would be j’ai assez mangé, I’ve had enough, or j’ai trop mangé, I’ve eaten too much).
Farine (f) flour.
Fécule de maïs (f) corn starch. Also referred to by the brand name Maïzena.
Fécule de pomme de terre (f) potato starch.
Fenouil (m) fennel.
Ferme-auberge (f) a farm-inn, i.e. a farm that also operates as a casual restaurant, in which the farm’s products are cooked and served.
Fermier (adj) farm-made or farm-raised.
Feuille guitare (f) a sheet of plastic that chocolatiers use to ensure their confections have a shiny finish. Literally: guitar sheet.
Fève (f) fava bean/broad bean.
Filet de boeuf (m) beef tenderloin.
Filet de poulet (m) chicken breast.
Financier (m) a small almond cake shaped like a gold ingot.
Fleur de sel (f) flecks of sea salt collected at the surface of salt marshes. Grey-white and slightly moist, it has a distinctive and delicate taste.
Florentin (m) small disks of slivered almonds and candied fruits, baked together in sugar, honey, butter and/or cream, and dipped in chocolate. Recipe here.
Florilège (m) a selection of the best items in a category.
Foie (m) liver.
Foie gras (m) the liver from a fatted duck or goose.
Fondue bourguignonne (f) a type of fondue in which you cook cubes of meat (generally beef) in hot oil then eat them with a variety of dipping sauces.
Fondue savoyarde (f) cheese fondue, made with white wine and cheeses from Savoie, a region on the French side of the Alps.
Formule (f) a limited selection of dishes offered for a set price, usually cheaper than a menu.
Four (m) oven.
Four à bois (m) woodfire oven.
Fourchette (f) fork.
Fourme d’Ambert (m) blue cheese from Auvergne, a mountain range in the center of France.
Frais (adj) fresh.
Fraise (f) strawberry.
Framboise (f) raspberry.
Frit (adj) fried.
Frites (f. pl.) French fries.
Friture (f) something fried. Specifically: tiny fried fish served in the South of France, and the fish-shaped Easter chocolates meant to represent them.
Froid (adj) cold.
Fromage (m) cheese.
Fromage blanc (m) a smooth, unsalted fresh cheese, similar to yogurt.
Fromage frais (m) fresh cheese.
Fruits de mer (m. pl.) shellfish.
Fruits déguisés (m. pl.) literally: fruits in disguise. A traditional Christmas confection, in which dried fruits (dates and prunes mostly) have their pit replaced with a piece of brightly colored marzipan.
Fruits secs (m. pl.) dried fruits. Nuts are sometimes included in that category.
Fumé (adj) smoked.

Galette (f) a savory crêpe made with buckwheat flour. Also: any preparation that’s flat and circular, or patty-shaped.
Galette des rois (f) a puff pastry pie filled with frangipane, which is a mix of almond cream and pastry cream. It is one of the traditional cakes served on the Epiphany, a Christian holiday celebrated on January 6.
Gambas (f. pl.) jumbo shrimp.
Ganache (f) a smooth preparation of chocolate melted with cream and/or butter. It is used in filled chocolates and chocolate tarts in particular.
Gâteau (m) cake.
Gaufre (f) waffle.
Gelée (f) jelly.
Gésier (m) gizzard.
Gibier (m) game.
Gigot d’agneau (m) leg of lamb.
Gingembre (m) ginger.
Giraumon (m) pumpkin.
Girolle (f) chanterelle mushroom.
Glacé (adj) iced, chilled.
Glace (f) ice, or ice cream.
(m) afternoon snack kids are given when they come out of school around 4pm, hence the other word for it, le quatre-heure.
(v) to taste.
Graine (f) seed.
Graine germée (f) sprouted seed.
(adj) fatty, greasy.
(m) fat.
Gratin (m) casserole.
Grenier (m) attic.
Gressin (m) pencil-shaped breadstick cracker, similar to the Italian grissino.
Grillé (adj) grilled.
Groseille (f) redcurrant.
Gruyère (m) firm cow cheese from the town of Gruyères, in the Swiss Alps.

Hareng (m) herring.
Haricot (m) bean. Haricot vert = green bean, haricot blanc = white bean, haricot rouge = red bean.
Haricot mangetout (m) snow pea. Literally: the eat-everything bean (unlike regular peas, you eat the pod as well).
Haricot tarbais (m) white kidney-shaped bean from Tarbes in the Pyrénées. It is the only bean to be protected by a Label Rouge and regional appellation, and can only be hand-picked.
Harissa (f) red chili garlic paste from North Africa.
Homard (m) lobster.
Huile (f) oil.
Huître (f) oyster.

Ile flottante (f) egg whites beaten until stiff then poached or baked, and served in a cup of crème anglaise. Literally: floating island.
Infusion (f) herbal tea.

Jambon (m) ham.
Jambon à l’os (m) bone-in ham.
Jambon cru (m) cured ham.
Jambon cuit (m) cooked ham.
Jarret de veau (m) veal shank.
Joue (f) cheek.
Jus (m) juice.

Kaki (m) persimmon.

Labyrinthe (m) maze.
Lait (m) milk.
Lait de coco (m) coconut milk.
Lait ribot (m) fermented milk from Brittany (laez ribod in Breton), a cousin to the North African kefir.
Langoustine (f) scampi.
Lapin (m) rabbit.
Lardon (m) a small strip of bacon.
Léger (adj) light.
Légume (m) vegetable.
Légumineuse (f) legume.
Levain (m) starter.
Lieu (m) pollack.
Lisette (f) a small mackerel.
Lotte (f) monkfish.

Macaron (m) a cookie made with ground almonds and egg whites. The macaron parisien in particular is made of two delicate meringue-like cookies sandwiched together by a creamy filling.
Mâche (f) lamb’s lettuce, i.e. a salad green that comes in small bouquets of mild-flavored leaves shaped like drops (or lambs’ ears).
Madeleine (f) a small, butter-rich teacake baked in an oval mold that gives it a vaguely scallop-like shape. The dough rises in the oven to form a characteristic bump which is, to some, the tastiest part of the madeleine.
Magret (m) the breast of a fattened duck or goose.
Maigre (adj) lean.
Maison, or Fait maison homemade.
Maquerau (m) mackerel.
Marché (m) farmer’s market.
Marron glacé (m) candied/glazed chestnut, i.e. a chestnut that is cooked in several baths of sugar syrup until meltingly tender. A typical Christmas delicacy.
Mélasse (f) molasses.
Membrillo (Spanish) quince.
Mendiant (m) a disk of chocolate topped with dried fruit and nuts. Also: any preparation (cake, ice cream, chocolate tart…) that involves chocolate, dried fruits, and nuts.
Menthe (f) mint.
Mérou (m) grouper.
Mi-cuit (adj) half-cooked.
Mie (f) the crumb of a loaf of bread. Not to be confused with miettes, crumbs.
Miel (m) honey.
Miette (f) crumb, as in “there are crumbs all over the table.”
Mille-feuille (m) A napoleon, i.e. a rectangular pastry made of alternating layers of puff pastry and vanilla pastry cream, iced with white fondant or sprinkled with confectioner’s sugar. Also: any dish involving layered ingredients. Literally: one thousand sheets.
Mimolette (f) a bright orange cheese from the North of France. It is labeled extra-vieille (“extra-old”) when aged for a long time until brittle and very sharp.
Mirabelle (f) small yellow plum.
Moelle (f) marrow.
Moelleux (adj) soft, mellow. When referring to wine: sweet.
Mont d’Or (m) a soft cow cheese from the Jura with a thicker rind wrapped in pine bark and sold in a round wooden box. A popular way to serve it is the boîte chaude (hot box), in which the Mont d’Or is oven-baked in its box, with a splash of white wine, and eaten warm.
Morue (f) fresh or salt cod.
Mouillette (f) a finger of toasted bread, usually spread with butter, to be dipped into a soft-boiled egg.
Moule (f) mussel.
Moule à gâteau (m) cake pan.
Moût (m) must.
Moutarde (f) mustard.
Mûr (adj) ripe.
Mûre (f) blackberry.
Muscade (f) nutmeg.
Myrtille (f) blueberry.

Navet (m) turnip. Also: a bad movie.
Noisette (f) hazelnut.
Noix (f) walnut.
Noix de coco (f) coconut.
Nougatine (f) a crunchy mixture of caramel and chopped almonds, often used in pastries as a layer or as a decoration.

Oeuf (m) egg.
Oeuf cocotte (m) an egg baked in a ramekin over other ingredients — usually ham and crème fraîche, with an optional topping of grated cheese.
Oie (f) goose.
Oignon (m) onion.
Onglet (m) hanger steak.
Orangette (f) a chocolate confection in which a strip of candied orange rind is dipped in dark chocolate, sometimes with chunks of almonds. Recipe here.
Orge (m) barley.
Ortie (f) nettle.
Os à moelle (m) marrow bone.
Oseille (m) sorrel.
Oursin (m) sea urchin.

Pain (m) bread.
Pain d’épice (m) a honey spice cake, litterally “spice bread”.
Pain de campagne (m) rustic bread. Literally: country bread.
Pain perdu (m) French toast, i.e. slices of day-old bread or brioche dipped in an egg batter and sautéed in butter until golden.
Pain Poilâne (m) rustic starter bread, sold by the Poilâne bakery.
Pain polaire (m) a soft, flat round of bread with dimples from Sweden.
Palombe (f) wood pigeon.
Palourde (f) clam.
Pamplemousse (m) grapefruit.
Panais (m) parsnip.
Panisse (m) a fried chickpea flour patty. It is a specialty from Marseilles, typically sold by beach-side vendors.
Papillote (f) a technique in which ingredients (fish, most often) are wrapped in foil or parchment paper and baked in the oven.
Pâques (f. pl.) Easter.
Patate douce (f) sweet potato.
Pâté (m) a mixture of finely chopped or pureed seasoned meat, usually used as a spread on bread.
Pâte à choux (f) choux pastry. A soft dough made of butter, flour, salt, water and eggs, that puffs up when baked. It is used to make a variety of pastries: chouquettes, éclairs, salambô, Saint-Honoré, profiterolles, gougères…
Pâte brisée (f) a flaky pastry dough made with flour, butter, eggs, and, if it is to be used for a sweet preparation, sugar.
Pâte d’amande (f) almond paste, or marzipan.
Pâte de fruit (f) fruit paste.
Pâte feuilletée (f) puff pastry.
Pâte sablée (f) sweet and crumbly pastry dough.
Pâtisserie (f) pastry. Also: pastry shop.
Pâtissier (m) pastry chef.
Pavé (m) a rectangular piece of meat or fish. Literally: paving stone.
Peau (f) skin.
Pendaison de crémaillère (f) housewarming party. (Une crémaillère is a trammel, the adjustable hook that was used to hang pots in the fireplace a housewarming party was thrown on the day that this essential piece of equipment was added to a new house.)
Persil (m) parsley.
Pétillant (adj) sparkling.
Petit beurre (m) a crisp, rectangular butter cookie.
Petit déjeuner (m) breakfast.
Petit gris (m) a small snail.
Petit pois (m) pea.
Petit suisse (m) fresh unsalted cheese sold in small cylindrical cartons.
Pétoncle (f) bay scallop.
Pichet (m) pitcher, jug.
Pignon (de pin) (m) pine nut.
Piment (m) chili pepper.
Pintade (f) guinea fowl.
Piperade (f) stewed bell peppers, tomatoes, and onions combined with scrambled eggs a specialty from the French Basque country.
Pissaladière (f) an onion tart with black olives and anchovies, on a thin bread-like crust. A specialty from Nice, in the South of France. The name comes from pissalat, a condiment made with pureed anchovies, cloves, thyme and bay leaves, which was traditionally spread on the tart before baking.
Pistache (f) pistachio.
Pistou (m) a paste made of basil, olive oil, garlic, and sometimes cheese, equivalent to the Italian pesto. A specialty from Provence.
Plat (m) dish, or main dish.
Plat du jour (m) today’s special.
Plat principal (m) main dish.
Plateau (m) platter.
Poché (adj) poached.
Poêlée (f) any preparation cooked in a skillet.
Poire (f) pear.
Poireau (m) leek.
Pois chiche (m) chickpea.
Pois gourmand (m) snow pea.
Poisson (m) fish.
Poisson d’eau douce (m) freshwater fish.
Poisson de mer (m) seawater fish.
Poitrine (f) breast, or, for pork, belly.
Poitrine fumée (f) bacon.
Poivre (m) pepper.
Poivron (m) bell pepper.
Pomme (f) apple. Sometimes also used to mean potato, short for pomme de terre, as in pommes sarladaises, pommes sautées, pommes frites, pommes dauphines, etc.
Pomme de terre (f) potato. Literally: earth apple.
Pommes sarladaises (f. pl.) potatoes sautéed with garlic (and sometimes mushrooms) in duck fat. A specialty from Sarlat, in the Périgord region.
Porc (m) pork.
Pot-au-feu (m) a stew of beef with carrots, onions, turnips, and leeks.
Potimarron (m) winter squash with a delicate chestnut flavor. Its French name is a portmanteau of potiron (pumpkin) and marron (chestnut).
Potiron (m) pumpkin.
Poulet (m) chicken.
Poulpe (m) octopus.
Pounti (m) (also: pountari) a terrine of pork, swiss chard, and prunes a specialty from Auvergne.
Pourboire (m) tip.
Note: in France, menu prices include a 15% service charge.
Pousse (f) sprout, or young leaf.
Praire (f) clam.
(f) a paste made of ground caramelized nuts and chocolate.
(f) a chocolate bite filled with the above paste.
(f) a caramelized nut, usually an almond or a peanut.
Praline rose (f) a sugar-coated almond with a pink coloring a specialty from Lyon.
Pré-dessert (m) an intermediary course served after the main or cheese course, to cleanse the palate and prepare it for the dessert.
Pressé (m) a pressed terrine.
Prune (f) plum.
Purée (f) mashed potatoes, or any mashed preparation.

Quenelle (f) an oval dumpling, classically flavored with pike, served poached or baked. Also used to designate the shape of such a dumpling.
Quetsche (f) an oval plum with purple skin and green flesh. It is similar to the damson plum, but sweeter.
Queue (f) tail.

Radis (m) radish.
Raffiné (adj) refined. Non raffiné means unrefined — whole (for flour) or raw (for sugar).
Ragoût (m) stew.
Raifort (m) horseradish.
Raisin (m) grape.
Rascasse (f) rockfish.
Ratatouille (f) a vegetable stew made with tomatoes, zucchini, eggplant, peppers, onions, herbs and olive oil a specialty from Provence.
Ratte (f) a small, nutty potato, similar to the fingerling potato.
Réglisse (f) liquorice.
Reine claude (f) a round, green-skinned plum. Literally: Queen Claude.
Rince-doigt (m) a moist towelette with a citrus smell on which to wipe one’s fingers after eating seafood. Also: a small bowl filled with citrus water, serving the same purpose.
Ris (pl, m) sweetbreads, of veal or lamb.
Riz (m) rice.
Riz au lait (m) rice pudding.
Rocamadour (m) an individual round goat cheese, produced around the town of Rocamadour, in the Périgord region.
Rocher à la noix de coco (m) coconut macaroon. Literally: coconut rock/boulder.
Rognon (m) kidney.
Roquette (f) rucola or arugula, a peppery and tangy spear-leaved salad green.
(adj) rare, when referring to the cooking stage for duck or lamb.
(m) rosé wine.
Rösti (m) a potato pancake with cheese.
(adj) roasted.
(m) roast.
Rouge (adj) red.
Rouget (m) goatfish, or red mullet.
Rouget barbet (m) red mullet.
Rouleau (m) roll.

Sabayon (m) a sweet, whipped sauce flavored with wine.
Sablé (m) a butter cookie with a sandy consistency.
Sabodet (m) pig’s head sausage from Lyon.
Saignant (adj) rare.
Saint-jacques (or Coquille Saint-Jacques) (f) sea scallop.
Saint-Pierre (m) John Dory.
Salon (m) 1: living-room. 2: trade show.
Sarrasin (m) buckwheat.
Saucisson (m) dry sausage.
Saumon fumé (m) smoked salmon.
Sec (adj) dry.
Séché (adj) dried.
Seiche (f) cuttlefish.
Seigle (m) rye.
Selle (f) saddle.
Sirop (m) syrup.
Sommelier (m) a member of the wait staff of a restaurant who specializes in wine.
Souris d’agneau (f) lamb shank.
Speculoos (m) crunchy cinnamon and cassonade cookie from Belgium.
Sucre (m) sugar.
Sucre de canne (m) cane sugar.
Sucre glace (m) confectioner’s sugar.
Sucre roux (m) brown sugar.
Supion (m) small squid.
Sur place (adj) for here (as opposed to à emporter, to go).
Surgelé (adj) frozen.

Tapenade (f) green or black olive paste.
Tartare (m) a dish that involves a raw ingredient, chopped or diced finely, and seasoned. The most classic example is steak tartare, made with raw beef, but the term is also used for preparations of raw fish or vegetables.
Tarte flambée (f) a thin Alsatian tart usually garnished with crème fraîche, onions, and lardons.
Tarte tatin (f) fruit pie (traditionally made with apples) baked with the crust atop the fruit, but flipped before serving.
Tartine (f) originally, a slice of bread, toasted or not, with something spread on it, usually eaten for breakfast. More recently, a main dish of one or two slices of bread on which ingredients are laid, creating a sort of open-faced sandwich.
Terrine (m) a preparation of meat, fish or vegetables, cooked or assembled in an earthenware dish and served cold, in slices. Also: the earthenware dish used for such preparations.
Tête de moine (f) a wheel-shaped Swiss cheese. It is traditionally served in thin shavings, cut from the top of the cheese with a rotating knife planted in the center of the wheel. Literally: monk’s head.
Thym (m) thyme.
Tiède (adj) lukewarm, or slightly warm.
Timbale (f) tumbler, can be used for any dish served in a small cup, or shaped like a small cup.
Tisane (f) herbal tea.
Topinambour (m) Jerusalem artichoke.
Torchon (m) dishcloth.
Tourte (f) a savory pie with a top crust. Also: a loaf of rustic bread.
Tourteau (m) large crab.
Tourteau fromagé (m) a cheese cake from the Poitou region, traditionally made with fresh goat cheese.
Tranche (f) slice.
Tresse (f) braid.
Truffe (f) truffle.
Truite (f) trout.

(m) an ice cream and meringue cake.
(m) another name for Mont d’Or cheese.
(f) steam.
(adj) steamed (it then stands for cuit à la vapeur).
Veau (m) veal.
Velouté (m) a smooth and velvety soup.
Vergeoise (f) a soft brown (or light brown) sugar made from sugar beets, and a specialty from Belgium.
Verre (m) glass.
(f) a ball jar used in canning.
(f) any dish served in a jar or glass.
Viande (f) meat.
Vigneron (m) winemaker.
Vinaigre (m) vinegar.
Vinaigre balsamique (m) balsamic vinegar.
Violet (m) a type of shellfish with a soft and deeply wrinkled shell that looks like a rock covered with seaweed, and bright yellow flesh. Also called biju or patate de mer.
Volaille (f) poultry.

Yaourt (m) yogurt.
Yaourtière (f) yogurt-making appliance.


adj : adjective
v : verb
f : feminine noun – use with la/une
m : masculine noun – use with le/un
pl : plural noun – use with les/des

2 Classic French Garnishes / Descriptions

1. Africaine :
In the African style, as practiced the French Chefs. Dishes that bear this title must convey the style of foods consumed in the vast continent of North, West, Central and East Africa and the Union of South Africa. It was, however indiscriminately applied by the French0 Chefs, to dishes during the reign of Napoleon III when Meyerbeer a opera L’Africaine enjoyed great popularity. The principal ingredients used as garnishes, giving dishes the right to bear this title are : chicken, mushroom, tomatoes, eggplant, tomatoes cooked in oil, curried and spiced foods, dishes garnished with savoury rice or flavoured with garlic or pimento and groundnuts, coconut and pistachio nuts find their way in the sweet course.
2. Ailerons :
Wing tips of chicken. Foods garnished with small wings of poultry of fins of certain types of fish. Eg. Consomme Ailerons. Chicken consommé garnished with stuffed chicken wings and cooked rice.
3. Aioli :
A provencal olive-oil cum garlic sauce. In province, the aioli is the name of the dish itself whether it be fish, vegetables or snails when served with this cold sauce.
Sauce : Garlic flavoured mayonnaise sauce with hard boiled eggs added, sprinkled with cayenne. Mashed potatoes could be used to thicken.
4. Alaska :
Formerly called Russian America, is a territory of the United States of America.
Eg. (i) Sole Alaska – Poached whole sole in white wine, half coated with a pink shrimp sauce and the other half with white wine sauce (made from fish liquor) garnished with poached oysters and noisette potatoes.
(ii) Baked Alaska is America’s famous dessert. It is frozen vanilla ice cream placed on a sponge cake base covered quickly with meringue and baked in a hot oven to brown the meringue immediately.
(iii) Cantaloupe Alaska – cut cantaloupes into 2, fill with ice cream top with meringue and browned.
5. Alexandra :
Was the consort (the queen) of Edward VII, a king of Great Britain & Ireland in whose honour many dishes were named. Indicates inclusion of Aspargus tips.
Eg. (i) Consomme Alexandra : Chicken consommé thickened with tapioca garnished with shredded chicken, lettuce and aspargus tips.
(ii) Chicken sauté Alexandra. Cook the chicken breasts in butter, mask with thin soubise sauce reduced with cream, and garnish with asparagus tips.
6. Allemande :
In the German style, dishes garnished with sauerkraut or pickled salt pork or smoked sausages.
Eg. (i) Consomme thickened with tapioca flour garnished with julienne of red cabbage and slices of smoked sausages.
(ii) Salade Allemande : Slides of apple, new potatoes, beetroot mixed with smoked herring fillets ad gherkins sprinkled with chopped parsley and vinaigrette dressing.
7. Amabassadrice :
Literally means wife of the Ambassador.
Eg. (i) Sole : Crayfish encased in rolled filets of sole. Poached and served with sauce normande.
(ii) Pudding :
A rich custard flavored with kirsch with a layer of strawberries, served with strained strawberry jam flavored with kirsch.
8. Americaine : In the American style as practiced by French chefs. A garniture for fish with slices of lobster tail and truffles.
Sauce : Tomato sauce, enrich with cream, blended with pounded coral butter and tail meat. Reduce with rich fish stock.
Bombe : Ice cream bombe lined with strawberry ice cream flavored with grenadine, alternated with pistachio ice cream.
Salade : Sliced potatoes, tomatoes, celery, rings of onions, sliced hard boiled eggs with a French dressing.
9. Andalouse :
In the Andalusian style. A Spanish province. Chicken consommé garnished with diced tomatoes, cucumber and cooked vermicelli. A cold sauce – Mayonnaise, tomato puree mixed with finely chopped brunoise of capsicum.
10. Anglaise :
In the English style as prepared by French Chefs. It indicates a “Plainly prepared” dish.
Garniture for chicken : Mixed vegetable (carrots, French beans, turnips, potatoes, cauliflower) cooked, in salted water.
Cotelettes de veau : Grilled breaded cutlets garnished with par boiled potatoes fried in butter.
11. Anna :
The first name of Anna Amelia Duchesse of Saxony, bon 24th October 1739, Chiefly applied to a certain manner of cooking potatoes invented by Chef Duglere who was Chef yet Cam D’ anglaise in Paris, in pre-war days.
Potatoes : Peeled, sliced thinly, arranged in a shall mould with melted butter and seasoning. Baked in oven to golden yellow.
12. Argentuil :
Name of a district in France famous a for its asparagus.
Potage : Asparagus soup thickened with rice and garnished with asparagus points.
Chicken : Large flat fillet, poached and coated with preme sauce to which aspargus puree has been added. Garnished with asparagus tips.
13. Au Bleu :
Meats cooked fresh and simply soon after killing, Truite au bleu Trout brought to the kitchen alive stunned and gutted just before cooking in water and white wine. Flavored with herbs and vinegar served with parsley, potatoes, Hollandaise sauce or melted butter.
14. Aurore : Dawn, break of day. The Roman Goddess of Dawn (Aurore). Consomme of veal stock with tomato puree added garnished with diced chicken.
Sauce :
Bechamel sauce flavoured with tarragon and lightly coloured with tomato puree or lobster butter in case of fish.
Oeufs : Julienne of had oiled eggs in Allemande sauce with grated cheese browned under the grill.
Fruits : Cold desserts, made from fruits in season on strawberry ice cream with a Zabaiene (Sabayon) sauce flavoured with curacoo.
15. Baba :
Turkish for father. It is generally acknowledged that the invention of the cake Baba au rhum belongs to King Stanishlaus of Russia. The king used to reed tales of a 100 nights and has named this after one of his favorite heroes Alibaba.
Babaau Rhum :
A light yeast dough batter, sweetened and enriched with butter and eggs. While hot it is soaked in hot sugar syrup strongly flavoured with rum, whipped cream is piped on top of the cake. Baba au Kirsch as aboveus in kirsch instead of rum.
16. Bataille : Brittle, fight, bottle array or batailey – a chateau of the Bordeaux district.
Potatoes : Cut in ½” squares and deep fried in fat.
17. Battenburg :
The name of the family of German Counts which died out about 1314. The title was revived in 1851.
Batterburg Cake :A lattice pattern of pink, yellow and chocolate Genoese sponge cake encased in rich almond paste.
18. Bavroise: A Bavarian cream, Bevarian style. Example of Bavarian creams flavoured custard using double the volume of cream (in relation to milk).
Sauce : Rich Hollandaise sauce flavoured with cray fish puree and paprika.
19. Bayonnaise :
The city in Spain was famous for its ham and pork products. It is said Mayonnaise was first spelled “Bayonnaise, Spain claims Mayonnaise as one of her culinary creations.
Cancape :
A circle of rye toast heaped with minced ham.
Poulet Saute : Young chicken fried with chopped ham stewed in brown sauce and served with boiled rice.
20. Bearnaise :
From the province of bean in the French Pyrencess.
Sauce : Bearnaiseis named by the Chef of Henry IV at St. Germain who first introduced this sauce. Yolks of eggs warmed in double boiler, with chopped shallots and herbs with butter added piece by piece until the sauce is as thick as mayonnaise, lemon juice and cayenne pepper added.
Chauteaubriand : Double fillet of beef, brushed with olive oil, broiled, garnished with watercress and carved with sauce Bearnaise.
21. Bechamel :
Marqquis de Bechamel, a courtier in the service of King Louis SiV said to have invented the Bechamel sauce.
Lobster : Diced and mixed with béchamel returned to shell and baked.
Artichokes : Boiled artichokes served with Behcamel sauce.
22. Belle Helene :
Presumably named for the opera. ‘Belle Helen’ by often back produced 1864.
Tournedoss de boeuf :
Small fillets of beef, grilled, garnished with straw potatoes, watercress and artichoke bottoms filled with sauce Bearnaise.
Desserts : Fresh fruits like pears, peaches, stewed in vanilla flavoured sugar syrup. When cold placed on ice cream and covered with rich glossy chocolate sauce garnished with whipped cream and nuts.
23. Belle Paesse :
A rich, creamy Italian cheese of milk flavour weighing 2-5 lbs each.
24. Bercy :
It is a suburb and market of Paris.
Potage : Puree offspring turnips thickened with cream and egg yolks.
Sauce : Thin, meat glaze with chopped shallots reduced in white wine and enriched with fresh butter, lemon juice and chopped parsley.
Sole : Rolled fillets offish, cooked under cover, in butter with chopped shallots, mushrooms liquor, white wine and chopped parsley masked with Bercy sauce.
25. Bigarade :
A bitter Seville orange from Spain.
Canard sausage : Wild duck served with orange salad and sauce bigarde.
Caneton : Duckling cooked underdone. The fillet is sliced and served with sauce bigarde.
Sauce : Gravy from duck, reduce with very fine shreds of orange and flavoured with orange juice and a little redcurrant jelly.
26. Bolognaise (a la) :
In the style of Bologna, a city in Italy famous for its Bogognais sausages.
Spaghetti : Cooked in salted water, strained, combined with diced/minced beef tossed in butter with minced onions moistened with veal stock, flavoured with garlic and tomato.
27. Bonne Femme :
(Good woman) – Housewife style
Potage : Thick white bean and chicken soup with julienne of vegetables (leeks) and sorrel carrots and turnips.
Sauce : Creamy white sauce made with finely chopped mushrooms and shallots, blended with butter, seasoned, thickened with cream and egg yolk and flavoured with white wine.
Sole : Poached fillets of sole, cooked with chopped shallots, mushrooms parsley, fish stock and white wine. Mask with fish veloute sauce and browned.
Poulet sauce : Young chicken sauteed with rich gravy reduced with white wine, garnish with diced bacon and button onions.
28. Bordelaise (a la) :
In the style of the city of Bordeaux.
Sauce Rich brown sauce reduced with red wine and chopped shallots, tarragon and parsley.
29. Boudin Noir :
Traditional grilled, blood sauce sausage for the festivities of Christmas Eve in Germany (Alcase).
30. Bouilli A Baisse :
A provencal world, indicates to boil up and then stop.
Bouillabaise – A mediterranean fish stew of several kinds of fish cut into small pieces and tossed in oil with chopped, herbs and onions moistened with white wine seasoned with saffron, tomatoes and garlic. Garnish with chopped parsley. Very popular with the fisherman on the water front in Marseillaize who prepare this for a late breakfast with the leftovers of the morning sale.
31. Bouillon (Stock) :
Broth, principally of beef.
32. Bouquetiere (a la) :
In the manner of ‘flower girls’ usually a garnish consisting of small fine vegetables dressed in small heaps around the meat.
33. Bourbon :
Name of a family of French rulers.
Consomme : Chicken consommé thickened with tapioca garnished with truffles cut into fancy shaped (hearts, diamonds, crescent etc.) and finally chopped chervil.
34. Bourguignonne (a la) :
Burgundy style : As a rule dishes in the preparation of which Burgundy wine is added.
Sauce Espagnole : Sauce flavoured with finely minced shallots, thyme, parsley, tarragon and mace. Burgundy wine is usually added.
Garniture for joint (roasts) : Button mushrooms and onions tossed in butter with small dices of lean bacon and Burgundy wine.
35. Bressane (a la) :
Style of Bresse French Provencal district famous of its fattened chicken. Poulardes des Bresse.
Crème :
Cream of Pumpkin soup, garnished with mezzanelli (Italian paste) enriched with cream.
36. Brillat – Savarin :
Noted French gastronome and author of culinary works,chiefly famous for his book. “La Physiologie du gout” (the physiology of taste). The well known light, spongy yeast cake made in ring form is named after him.
37. Brunoise :
Brunoy a district in France celebrated of its spring vegetables finely diced cooked root vegetables for a consommé garnish.
Consomme : A rich beef, consommé garnished with small diced carrots, leeks, onion, turnip, celery, all browned in a little butter, cooked in the consommé.
38. Cardinal :
The highest dignitary of the Roman catholic church, after the, Pope. A s a cardinal wears a distinctive scarlet, dress and a scarlet cap, the kitchen term stands of any dish of that colour. Usually lobster coral plays an important part in the fish dishes.
Consomme : Chicken consommé ‘flavoured with tomato puree garnished with finely cut julienne of vegetable, strips of truffles and lobster dumplings.
Lobster : Cubed Lobster mixture mixed with sauce Americaine and filled in shells, sprinkle with cheese and breadcrumbs and brown in the oven.
Sauce : Rich, white fish sauce blended with pounded lobster coral togive it a correct colour, flavoured with essence or anchovies and tarragon.
Garniture for fish : diced lobster, truffle, shrimps o prawn and caroinal sauce.
Dessert : Strawberries, peaches or pears poached in syrup and dressed on strawberry or raspberry ice cream with raspberry or strawberry sauce and sprinkled with sliced roasted almonds and little pistachio nuts.
39. Careme :
Antoin Careme (1784 – 1833) Chef to king George IV and later the Austrian Emperor Francis II and the Russian Czar Alexandra I and author of many culinary works. Many dishes are named after this most famous chef.
40. a. Carmen Sylva :
was the nom-de-plumeo Elizabeth, Queen of Romania, born 29th December 1843.
b. Star role in the opera of the same name by Bizet which was first produced in Paris at the Opera Comedie on 3rd March 1875.
Consomme : Clear beef consommé well coloured with tomato puree garnished with star shapes of pimento boiled rice and chervil.
41. Charlotte :
Charlotte mould (tall, straight sided mould) lined with over-lapping wager biscuits and filled with strawberry of raspberry cream, mixed with a little melted gelatin and cream.
42. Celestine (a la) :
The Celestines were recognized as a branch of the Benedictines, Celestine being a monk so named after Pope Celesten. Several dishes bear this name and are of an exquisite character. St. Celestine is commenmorated on 6th April each year.
Consomme : Clear broth garnished with shredded pancake and chopped herbs.
43. Chantilly :
City and district of France, famous for its rich cream and fine green peas.
Sauce : (a) Hot, rich béchamel sauce blended with lightly whipped cream (b) Cold mayonnaisesauce : blended with whipped cream, flavoured with lemon juice.
44. Charcutiers :
In the manner of pork butche’s style.
Sauce : Demiglaze mixed with chopped onions julienne of gherkins reduced with white wine and mustard to finish.
45. Chartreuse :
The conventknown as La Grande Chartereuse near Grenole, France form seat of the Carthusian monks. These monks who were strict vegetarians invented a vegetable composition (liqueur) usually made and cooked in moulds in a very elaborate way. When the monks were driven from France they given this title including Chartreuses of meat, game, poultry etc. Strictly speaking however all dishes bearing the name chartreuse should have the vegetarian liqueur. It is a sweet liqueur originally made in Spain. The secret of the recipe is closely guarded.
Colours – yellow and green
46. Chasseur :
A chaser, a hunter a style from the famous chasseurs of light infantry of cavalry

Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management/Chapter XXIII

Ingredients.—Chicken croquette mixture, No. 115. rough puff paste, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat.

Method.—Roll out the paste as thinly as possible, and cut it into 1¼ or 1½ inch squares. Place a little chicken mixture in the centre of each square, and roll up rather tightly. Coat them carefully with eggs and breadcrumbs, fry in hot fat until lightly-browned, then drain well, and serve garnished with crisply fried parsley.

Time.—To fry, 5 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. to 3d. each. Allow 2 or 3 to each person. Seasonable at any time.


See "American Cookery."


See "American Cookery."


The male fowl, the capon, and the female bird, the poularde, are both, by treatment while young, made incapable of generating, with that their size is increased, and they become fatter than ordinary fowls. The flavour of the poularde is considered more delicate than that of the capon, but the latter is the larger bird. They may be boiled, braised, roasted, or otherwise dressed, according to the directions given for cooking chickens and fowls. Care, of course, must be taken that the methods, accessories, and garnishes used are equal to the birds in point of excellence.

1149.—CHICKEN À LA MARENGO. (Fr.Poulet sauté à la Marengo.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, ¼ of a pint of salad-oil, 1 pint of Espagnole sauce (see Sauces, No. 244), the pulp of 2 ripe tomatoes, ½ a glass of sherry, 1 dozen preserved mushrooms, 6 stoned olives, 1 truffle, salt and pepper, fleurons for garnish.

Method.—Divide the chicken into neat pieces, and fry them in salad-oil until nicely browned, then drain well and pour away the oil. Heat up the Espagnole sauce with the tomato pulp, replace the chicken in the stewpan, add the sherry, mushrooms and olives whole, the truffle cut into large pieces, and simmer gently for three quarters of an hour, or until the chicken is tender. When done, pile in the centre of a hot dish, strain the sauce over, and garnish with the mushrooms, olives and truffle. Place a few fleurons, i.e., half-moon or crescent-shaped pieces of puff pastry, or crôutes of fried bread, round the dish.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 5s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Fowls. —The name sometimes applied to birds of large size, but more usually restricted to those of the genus Gallus, of which the domestic fowl is a familiar example. Such birds form a typical group of Rasores, or "scratchers." They are furnished with strong beaks and claws, and the heads of the males are distinguished by a comb, brightly coloured and frequently erectile, their legs are provided with spurs used in conflict, the cock being a very pugnacious bird, and resenting the presence of a rival. The plumage of the male bird is much more brilliant than that of the female, except in the case of the pure white breeds, the long feathers of the cock's tail, with their graceful curve, adding beauty to the appearance of the bird. The fowl is interesting from its susceptibility to variation under domestication. Its original habitat appears to have been Eastern Asia and the Malayan Archipelago. The Bankiva Jungle Fowl, a native of Java, is supposed to have been the original stock from which the domesticated varieties have been derived. Among the numerous breeds or varieties are the Common or Barndoor fowl, a bird of no special breed, but representing interbreeding between various varieties: the Cochin-China fowl, the Polish fowl, the Spanish fowl, the Hamburg, the Dorking, the Bantam and the Game fowl. The term chicken is applied to the young female bird, from the period it is hatched until it is four months old after that age until they begin to lay they are called pullets, and subsequently hens.

1150.—CHICKEN, BOILED, TURKISH STYLE. (Fr.Poulet Bouilli à la Turque.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken or fowl, ½ a lb. of boiled rice, ½ a pint of tomato sauce (see Sauces No. 281), 1 oz. of butter, 1 teaspoonful of cornflour, 1 finely-chopped shallot, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the chicken and cut it into neat joints. Melt the butter, fry the shallot slightly, add the tomato sauce, and when thoroughly hot put in the pieces of chicken, and simmer very gently for 25 minutes. A few minutes before serving add the cornflour previously blended with a little cold water. Arrange the chicken neatly in a border of boiled rice, strain the sauce over, and serve.

Time.—From 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1151.—CHICKEN, BOMBS OF. (Fr.Petites Bombes de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw chicken, 1 oz. of flour, ½ an oz. of butter, ​ ½ a gill of water, 3 whites of eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, chopped parsley, salt and pepper, ½ a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces, No. 178).

Method.—Pass the chicken 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine, or chop it finely. Melt the butter in a small stewpan, stir in the flour, add the water, boil well, then turn the panada or culinary paste on to a plate to cool. Pound the chicken in a mortar until smooth, adding the panada gradually, and each white of egg separately. Season to taste, and rub through a fine wire sieve. Have ready the bomb moulds thickly coated with clarified butter, and sprinkle their entire surface with chopped parsley. Whip the cream slightly, stir it lightly into the chicken purée, and pipe the mixture into the moulds. Place them in a stew-pan containing boiling water to about half their depth, cover with a buttered paper, put on the lid, and cook gently for 20 or 25 minutes. Arrange them in 2 rows on a hot dish, pour the hot sauce round, and serve.

Time.—About 20 minutes, to cook the bombs. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 10 or 12 bombs, according to size.

1152.—CHICKEN, BOMBS OF (Cold). (Fr.Petites Bombes de Volaille à la Gelée.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of cooked chicken, 2 tablespoonfuls of white sauce, 1 tablespoonful of sherry, ½ a gill of thick cream, ½ a pint of aspic jelly, 4 sheets of gelatine, dressed salad. For coating the moulds: aspic jelly, cream, small green peas, truffle, chili, or other decoration.

Method.—Coat the moulds thinly with aspic jelly, decorate them tastefully with truffle, or whatever is preferred, set with aspic jelly, then line with aspic cream, made by combining cold liquid aspic jelly and cream in equal quantities. Chop the chicken finely, pound in a mortar until smooth, adding seasoning, white sauce, and sherry by degrees. Rub through a fine wire sieve, then add the nearly cold aspic jelly (in which the gelatine must have been previously dissolved), and the cream stiffly whipped, mix all lightly but thoroughly together, and turn into the moulds. When cold serve on a bed of dressed salad, and garnish with aspic jelly, cucumber, tufts of endive, or other suitable garnish.

Average Cost.—3s. to 3s. 6d., exclusive of the chicken. Sufficient for 8 or 10 small moulds.

The Dorking derives its name from the town of that name in Surrey, where the breed exists in large numbers and in great perfection. The colour of the true Dorking is pure white the bird is long in the body and short in the legs. A characteristic feature of the Dorking is its possession of five claws on each foot the extra claw is not, however, sufficiently long to encumber the foot, or cause the fowl to "drag" its nest. It has been a subject of dispute from what particular breed the Dorking is derived, some contending that the Poland fowl is the progenitor of the Dorking, basing the assertion on the resemblance of the shape of the latter to the former, and the fact that the Poland cock, although sombre in hue, will occasionally beget thorough white stock from Dorking hens.

1153.—CHICKEN, BOUDINS OF. (Fr.Boudins de Volaille à la Richelieu.)

Ingredients.—For the farce, or stuffing: ½ a lb. of raw chicken, 1 oz. of flour, 1 oz. of butter, ½ a gill of stock (made from chicken bones), 1 egg, salt and pepper, nutmeg. For the salpicon, or mince of game or poultry: 1 sweetbread, or a few lambs' throat breads, 1 slice of tongue, 6 preserved mushrooms, 1 large truffle, 3 or 4 tablespoonfuls of white sauce, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat.

Method.—Melt the butter in a small stewpan, stir in the flour, add the stock, boil well, then turn the panada, or culinary paste, on a plate to cool. Chop the chicken meat finely, or pass it through a mincing machine, pound it in the mortar until smooth, adding the panada and egg gradually, then season to taste, and rub through a fine wire sieve. Blanch and cook the sweetbread in stock, cut it and the tongue, mushrooms and truffle into small dice, moisten with the white sauce, and season well. Have ready 8 or 10 boudin or quenelle moulds well coated with clarified butter, line them evenly and rather thickly with the chicken farce, fill with the salpicon, cover with farce, and smooth the surface with a hot, wet knife. Place them in a sauté-pan, surround them to half their depth with boiling water, cover with a buttered paper, and cook in a moderate oven from 25 to 30 minutes. Unmould, and, when cool, coat carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry until golden-brown in hot fat. Drain well, arrange neatly on a folded serviette or dish-paper, and serve with hot ravigote or other suitable sauce.

Time.—To cook, from 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. to 5s. Sufficient for 8 or 10 boudins.

1154.—CHICKEN, CASSEROLE OF. (Fr.Poulet en Casserole.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, 4 to 6 oz. of streaky bacon, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 shallot, finely-chopped, 2 tablespoonfuls of coarsely-chopped mushrooms, preferably fresh ones, stock, 1 oz. of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the chicken into neat joints. Heat 1 oz. of butter in a casserole just large enough to hold the chicken, and fry in it the bacon cut into strips. Then put in the chicken, add the shallot and mushrooms, cover, and cook slowly. Turn the pieces over, and when both sides are nicely browned, add stock to barely cover, and season to taste. Knead the flour and the remaining oz. of butter together, and add the mixture in small pieces, about 15 minutes before serving. The chicken should be served in the casserole, but it may, if preferred, be turned on to a hot dish.

Time.—From 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 3s. to 4s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1. Chaudfroid of Capon. 2. Chicken Quenelles and Peas. 3. Fricassée of Chicken.

1. Mould of Chicken. 2. Quenelles of Quail (Cold). 3. Braized Fillets of Duckling in Paste Border.

1155.—CHICKEN CREAM. (Fr.Crème de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw chicken, free from bone and skin, ⅛ of a pint of thick Béchamel sauce (see Sauces No. 178), ⅛ of a pint of double cream, 1 egg, salt and pepper, truffles.

Method.—Chop the chicken meat finely, pound it in a mortar until smooth, adding the egg and white sauce gradually, and pass the ingredients through a wire sieve. Whip the cream stiffly, stir it lightly in, and season to taste. Turn the mixture into 1 large or 6 or 7 very small buttered moulds and steam gently until firm. Dish up and sauce over. Server garnished with truffles, and send a boat of Béchamel or other suitable sauce to table separately.

Time.—To steam in 1 mould, about 30 minutes in small moulds, about 25 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. to 3s. 6d. Sufficient for 8 or 9 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Pencilled Hamburg. —This variety of the Hamburg fowl is of two colours, golden and silver and is very minutely marked. The hens of both these varieties have the body pencilled across with several bars of black—hence the name—and the hackle in both sexes of good breed is perfectly free from dark marks. The cocks do not exhibit the pencillings, but are white and brown respectively in the golden or silver birds. The Pencilled Hamburgs are compact in form, and sprightly and graceful in their attitudes. The hens lay abundantly, but are not sitters. They are imported in large numbers from Holland, and are also bred in England, the latter being much superior in size. These birds are known in various parts of the country as "Chitteprats," "Creoles" or "Corals," "Bolton bays and greys," and in some parts of Yorkshire are called "Corsican fowls."

1156.—CHICKEN, CREPINETTES OF. (Fr.Crepinettes de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—4 ozs. of cooked chicken, 2 oz. cooked ham, 4 button mushrooms, 1 truffle, 1 yolk of egg, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of thick white sauce, salt and pepper, pig's caul, ¼ a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—Cut the chicken, ham, mushrooms, and truffle into shreds about 1 inch in length, add the yolk of egg to the hot sauce, season to taste, put in the shredded ingredients, stir by the side of the fire for a few minutes, then put aside until cold (this is called the Salpicon). Wash the caul in salt and water, dry it, and cut it into 4-inch squares. Enfold a desertspoonful of the mixture in each piece of caul, form into a round shape, and either bake them in the oven for 6 minutes, and brush them over warm glaze, or coat them with egg and bread crumbs, and fry in hot fat. Serve on a bed of spinach or purée of green peas, and pour the sauce round.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. Sufficient for about 4 or 5 persons.

The Bantam. —This small variety of the game fowl is noted for its elegant appearance, animation, plumage and spirited courage, which, despite its diminutive size, it displays to a remarkable degree, especially when defending its progeny. Like the game bird, its original habitat is the East, and it is supposed to have derived its name from Bantam, in Java. The black and nankeen varieties are considered to be the best.

1157.—CHICKEN, CROQUETTES OF. (Fr.Croquettes de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—6 to 8 ozs. of cold chicken or fowl (boned), 2 ozs. of cooked ham or tongue, ¼ of a pint of stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 tablespoonful of cream, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 6 button mushrooms, 1 truffle, salt and pepper, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat.

Method.—Chop the chicken and ham or tongue finely, cut the mushrooms and truffle into small pieces. Melt the butter, fry the flour without browning, add the stock, and cook well. Stir in the chicken, ham or tongue, cream, lemon-juice, mushrooms and truffle, season with salt and pepper, and turn on to a plate to cool. Make into cork-shaped croquettes, coat carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry until lightly browned in hot fat.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for about 6 persons.

1158.—CHICKEN KROMESKIS. (Fr.Cromes Quis de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—Make a salpicon as directed in the preceding recipe, as many small very thin slices of bacon as there are cork-shaped pieces of the mixture. For the batter: 2 tablespoonfuls of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 tablespoonful of salad-oil or oiled butter, 1 egg, salt, frying-fat.

Method.—Mix the above ingredients into a smooth batter, and add to it 1 saltspoonful of salt.

Wrap each piece of the chicken mixture in a slice of bacon, dip into a light batter prepared from the above named ingredients, and fry in a deep pan of hot fat. Drain, and serve garnished with parsley.

Time.—1 hour. Probable Cost, 1s. 9d., to 2s. Sufficient for about 6 persons.

1159.—CHICKEN, CUTLETS OF. (Fr.Côtelettes de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of cold chicken, ¼ of a pint of white sauce, 1 oz. of butter, ½ an oz. of flour, the yolks of 2 eggs, ½ a shallot finely-chopped, salt and pepper, nutmeg, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat.

Method.—Chop the chicken finely. Fry the shallot and flour in the butter without browning, add the stock, and boil well. Put in the chicken, add nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, stir over the fire until thoroughly hot, then add the yolks of eggs, and cook the ingredients for 2 or 3 minutes longer. Cool the mixture when firm, shape into cutlets, egg and crumb them, and fry in deep fat. Drain well, arrange them in a close circle on a dish paper, garnish with fried parsley, and ​ serve hot, 2 or 3 oz. of lean ham, finely chopped, may be added to the chicken if liked.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 2s. 9d. Sufficient for about 7 persons.

1160.—CHICKEN, ESCALOPES OF. (Fr.Escalopes de Poulet.)

Ingredients.—The legs of a large uncooked chicken, ½ a lb. of lean veal, ¼ of a lb. of bacon (a corresponding amount of sausage-meat may be substituted for the veal and bacon), 6 mushrooms, 1 truffle, 2 yolks of eggs, 1 pint of stock, 3 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 1 tablespoonful of sherry, a few drops of lemon-juice, 1 onion, 1 carrot, ½ a small turnip, 1 strip of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper, spinach purée.

Method.—When veal and bacon are used, chop and pound them smoothly, then rub through a fine sieve. Add to this purée of meat the mushrooms and truffle cut into dice, season well with salt and pepper, and bind with 2 yolks of eggs. Bone the legs with the prepared farce or stuffing, shaping them as much like a roll as possible. Put 1½ ozs. of butter and the sliced vegetables into a stew-pan, lay the chicken legs on the top, cover, and fry gently for 20 minutes. Add stock to ¾ the depth of the vegetables, place a buttered paper over the chicken legs, put on the lid, and cook gently for 1 hour. Meanwhile, melt the remaining butter, stir in the flour, and cook over the fire until a brown roux, or thickening, is formed. When the chicken legs are sufficiently cooked, remove them and keep them hot strain the stock on to the brown roux, stir until boiling, simmer for 20 minutes, then add the sherry and lemon-juice, season to taste, and keep hot until required. Cut the chicken legs into ½-inch slices, arrange them slightly overlapping each other on the bed of spinach, strain the sauce round, and serve.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 3s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.


See "Chicken, Ramakins of," No. 1186. "Chicken, Small Soufflé of," No. 1193. "Chicken, Soufflé of," No. 1194. "Chicken Panada," No. 1178 also Chapter on "Invalid Cookery."

The Feather-legged Bantam. —Since the Bantam was introduced into Europe it has differentiated into several varieties, all more or less elegant, and some remarkable for their beauty. The Bantam should be of small size, but vigorous and brisk, exhibiting in its movements stateliness and grace. The most popular variety is remarkable for the tarsi or beams of the legs, which are plumed to the toes with stiff long feathers, brushing the ground. This variety is rare in its pure state. Another variety is red with a black breast and single dentated comb, with smooth tarsi and of a dusky colour. When this variety is pure it is a game fowl in miniature, both as regards courage and spirit, and is as handsome as it is spirited. There is also a pure white breed, which possesses the same characteristics.

1162.—CHICKEN FORCEMEAT. (Fr.Farce de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw chicken, free from bone, 1oz. of flour, 1 oz. of butter, 1 egg, ½ a gill of chicken stock, salt and pepper, nutmeg.

Method.—Melt the butter, stir in the flour, add the stock, boil well and let the panada or culinary paste cool slightly. Cut up and pound the chicken meat in the mortar until smooth, adding the egg, and the panada by degrees. Season to taste, rub through a fine wire or hair sieve, and use for quenelles, cutlets, boudins, bombes, timbales, etc. Before moulding or shaping the farce, its constituency should be tested, and if found too firm a little cream may be added.

1163.—CHICKEN FRIED IN BATTER. (Fr.Fricandelles de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—Chicken mixture as for croquettes of chicken, No. 1157, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat. For the batter: 4 ozs. of flour, ½ a pint of milk, 1 egg, 1 saltspoonful of salt.

Method.—Make the chicken mixture as directed. Mix the flour, milk, egg and salt into a smooth batter, and prepare some very thin pancakes. As each one is fried, spread the meat preparation over one side and roll up tightly. When cold, cut across into 2 or 3 pieces, about 1½ inches in length, coat with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry in deep fat. Drain well, and serve garnished with fried parsley.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, from 1s. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

1164.—CHICKEN, FRICASSÉED. (Fr.Fricassée de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 boiled chicken, 1 pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces), ½ a gill of cream, the yolks of 2 eggs, the juice of 1 lemon, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the chicken before it is quite cold into neat joints. Make the sauce as directed, put in the pieces of chicken, let them remain until thoroughly hot. Add the yolks and cream previously blended, and stir by the side of the fire until the sauce thickens, without boiling. Season to taste, add the lemon-juice, arrange neatly on a hot dish, and strain the sauce over. The dish may be garnished with truffle or cooked green peas, and the fricassée served in a border of mashed potato if desired.

Time.—About ¾ of an hour, after the chicken is boiled. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1165.—CHICKEN, FRITOT OF. (Fr.Fritot de Poulet).

Ingredients.—Cold chicken, either roast or boiled. For the marinade or liquor: 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped onion, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, ¼ of a teaspoonful of salt, ⅛ of a teaspoonful of pepper. For the batter: 4 ozs. of flour, ¼ of a pint of tepid water, 1 tablespoonful of salad-oil, the whites of 2 eggs, 1 saltspoonful of salt, frying-fat.

Method.—Cut the chicken into small joints, remove the skin, trim the pieces neatly, place them in a deep dish, pour over the marinade, and let them remain in it for 1½ hours, turning them frequently. Mix the flour, salt, water, and salad-oil into a smooth batter, let it stand for 1 hour, then stir in lightly the stiffly-whisked whites of eggs. Drain the pieces of chicken well, dip them into the batter, and fry until nicely browned in hot fat. Drain from the fat, arrange neatly on a dish-paper, garnish with crisply-fried parsley, and serve. Tartare or tomato sauce should be served separately in a sauceboat.

Time.—Altogether, 2 hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d., when a large chicken is used. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Sir John Sebright's Bantams. —This celebrated breed, which Sir John Sebright, after many years of careful experiment, brought to perfection, is considered to be the best and most beautiful of Bantam fowls. The bird is very small, with unfeathered legs, and a rose-comb and short hackles. Its plumage is gold or spangled, each feather being of a golden-orange or a silver-white colour, with a glossy jet-black margin. The tail of the male is folded like that of the hen, with the sickle feathers shortened nearly or quite straight, and broader than in other varieties of the Bantam. It possesses high courage and has a singularly proud, erect and gallant carriage, throwing back the head until it nearly touches the two upper feathers of the tail. Half-bred birds of this kind are not uncommon, but the pure breed is highly valued.

1166.—CHICKEN GRILLED WITH MUSHROOM SAUCE. (Fr.Poulet Grillé aux Champignons.)

Ingredients.1 chicken, ½ lb. lean raw ham, ½ a pint of Espagonle sauce (see Sauces, No. 244), 2 dozen button mushrooms, salad-oil or oiled butter, a croûton of fried bread.

Method.—Divide the chicken into pieces convenient for serving. Make the sauce as directed, add to it the mushrooms, season to taste, and keep hot until required. Cut the croûton to fit the dish, and fry it until lightly browned in hot fat. Cut the ham into short pieces and fry it. Brush the pieces of chicken over with salad-oil or oiled butter, and grill them over or in front of a clear fire. Arrange neatly on the croûton, strain the sauce round, and garnish with groups of mushrooms and ham.

Time.—To grill the chicken, about 15 minutes. Average Cost, 5s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

1167.—CHICKEN GUMBO. (See. American Cookery.)

1168.—CHICKEN ITALIAN. (Fr.Poulet a l'Italienne.)

See "Chicken with Italian Sauce," No. 1204.

1169.—CHICKEN JELLY. (Fr.Gelée de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken or fowl, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the chicken into small pieces and put them into a stewing-jar with about 1 pint of water and a little salt and pepper, and cook it in a moderately cool oven for 2 hours. Cut the flesh off the breast, wings and legs in thin slices, replace the bones and trimmings in the stew-jar, and cook as rapidly as possible on the stove for ½ an hour. Meanwhile arrange the slices of chicken in a mould or piedish, leaving a space at the sides, and as much space as possible between the layers, to be afterwards filled with stock. When the stock is ready, strain it, season to taste, let it cool slightly, and pour it over the chicken. Turn out when cold, and serve as a breakfast or luncheon dish.

Time.—To cook, about 2½ hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. Sufficient for 1 mould of medium size. Seasonable at any time.

The Poland. —This bird, a native of Holland, is a great favourite with fowl-keepers, from the great number of eggs which the birds of this variety produce, a circumstance which has caused Polands in many parts to be known as the "everlasting layers." From observation of the number of eggs produced by this prolific fowl, it was found that in one year five hens laid no less than 503 eggs, the average weight of each egg was 1 oz. and 5 drachms, the total weight of the whole, exclusive of the shells, amounting to 50¼ lb. The common black breed is plain in appearance, and has a bushy crown of white feathers other varieties, as the "silver-spangled" and the "gold-spangled," are handsome birds. The Poland is easily fattened, and its flesh is considered to be more juicy and of a richer flavour than many other fowls.

1171.—CHICKEN LEGS AS CUTLETS. (Fr.Cuisses de Volaille en Côtelettes.)

Ingredients.—Chickens' legs, slices of bacon, stock, Espagnole sauce (see "Sauces," No. 244), 2 onions sliced, 2 carrots sliced, 1 small turnip sliced, 8 peppercorns, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the thigh bones, but leave the drumstick, season the legs with salt and pepper, and fold the skin under. Shape as much like a cutlet as possible, enfold each leg in a piece of muslin, and fasten securely. Put the vegetables, bouquet-garni and peppercorns into a stewpan, nearly cover them with stock, and lay the legs on the top. Cover each one with a slice of bacon, place a greased paper over the whole, put on a close-fitting lid, and cook gently for about 1 hour. Remove the muslin and serve with the sauce poured over, or they may be glazed and have the sauce poured round. If preferred, ​ the legs may be enclosed in a pig's caul, instead of muslin, in which case they should be browned in a hot oven, and glazed before serving.

Time.—To braise, from 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, accessories to 4 chicken legs, about 1s. Allow 1 leg to each person. Seasonable at any time.

1172.—CHICKEN LEGS, STUFFED. (Fr.Cuisses de Volaille Farcies.)

Ingredients.—The legs of a cold fowl, 1 tablespoonful of sweet oil, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped sweet herbs, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped lemon rind, 2 slices of onion (blanched and chopped), 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 egg, 4 slices of streaky bacon, 2 slices of toasted buttered bread, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut each leg into 2 joints, and saw off the drumsticks, place them on a plate, season with pepper and salt, and moisten with a little sweet oil. Put the breadcrumbs, lemon rind, sweet herbs, onion and parsley in a basin, mix well, moisten with the yolk of an egg and season with a pinch of salt and a tiny pinch of cayenne. Drain the chicken's legs, cover each with the farce or stuffing above prepared, then wrap up in a slice of bacon, tie with twine, or skewer them securely. Place them on a greased baking-tin or sauté-pan, and cook in the oven for about 20 minutes. Cut each slice of toasted bread in two, trim neatly, dress the chicken's legs on these, dish up, garnish with a few sprigs of curly parsley, and serve hot.

Time.—To cook, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 1s. 9d. Sufficient for 2 or 3 persons.

The Serai Ta-ook or Fowls of the Sultan. —This fowl, which was first introduced into England in 1854 from Constantinople, takes its name from the Turkish sarai, "sultan's palace," and ta-ook, "fowl." They are lively brisk birds, excellent layers, but not good sitters, and their eggs are large and white in colour. In size they resemble the English Poland bird, and have a white and flowing plumage, a full-sized compact Poland tuft on the head, are muffled, have a full-flowing tail, short well-feathered legs, and 5 toes on each foot. Their comb is peculiar, consisting only of two little points, and their wattles are small. The colour of the bird is pure white.

1173.—CHICKEN LIVER PATTIES. (Fr.Pâtés de Foie de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—Chicken livers, butter, brown sauce (see "Sauces," No. 233), rough puff paste, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the gall and wash and dry the livers, cut them into rather small pieces, and toss them in hot butter over the fire for about 5 minutes. Have ready some patty-pans lined with thinly rolled out paste, fill them with liver, season highly with salt and pepper, and add a little brown sauce. Cover with paste, brush over with beaten egg, and bake in a moderately-hot oven for about 20 minutes, and serve either hot or cold.

Time.—To bake, about 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2d. each. Allow 1 to each person. Seasonable at any time.


See Chapter on "Savouries."

1175.—CHICKEN, MAYONNAISE OF. (Fr.Mayonnaise de Volaille.)

'Ingredients.—1 cold boiled chicken or fowl, ¾ of a pint of Mayonnaise sauce (see Sauces, No. 201), ¼ of a pint of aspic jelly, dressed salad.

Method.—Cut up the chicken into small joints, remove all the skin and ends of bones, and shape the pieces as neatly as possible. Dissolve the aspic jelly when cool enough, add it to the Mayonnaise sauce and mask the chicken. To facilitate the masking process place the pieces of chicken on a wire tray and pour over the sauce carefully by means of a tablespoon. When the sauce is set, decorate tastefully with truffle and chervil, and mask with a thin layer of liquid Aspic. Arrange neatly on a dish on a bed of dressed salad, and garnish the side of the dish with sprigs of endive, slices of cucumber and blocks of aspic jelly.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 9d. to 5s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1176.—CHICKEN, MINCE OF, BREADED. (Fr.Poulet au Gratin.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of coarsely-chopped cooked chicken, free from bone, 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped cooked ham, ½ a pint of Béchamel sauce, (see Sauces, No. 178) breadcrumbs, butter, nutmeg, salt and pepper.

Method.—Mix the chicken and ham together, stir in the sauce, which should thoroughly moisten the whole, otherwise more sauce must be added. Season to taste, add a pinch of nutmeg, and turn the mixture into 6 or 8 well-buttered scallop shells. Cover lightly with breadcrumbs, add 2 or 3 small pieces of butter, bake in a moderately-hot oven until nicely browned, then serve.

Time.—To bake, from 6 to 8 minutes. Average Cost, 8d., exclusive of the chicken. Seasonable at any time.

Various Modes of Fattening Fowls. —It is considered by some fowl-keepers that the flesh of a healthy well-fed fowl, which has lived a free, out-of-door life, is both in flavour and wholesomeness preferable to a bird kept in confinement and compulsorily fed. If, however, special fattening is resorted to, the birds should be confined in a clean warm pen or run, and fed three or four times a day on as much soft food as they will eat, care being taken to feed them very early in the morning and as late as possible at night. When specially fattened for the market the fowls are kept in the dark, which encourages them to rest—an essential to the laying on of flesh. The foods chiefly used for fattening are ground oats, whole wheat-meal, maize-meal and buckwheat-meal the last should always be included among the food fatty substances, as suet, are added by some to increase the fatness of the fowl. The true object, however, should be to develop abundance of good, wholesome flesh. Milk, either new or skimmed, is a valuable addition to the food, with which it should be mixed hot. Three weeks is the usual period for fattening a fowl.

1177.—CHICKEN, MINCED. (Fr.Poulet Émincé.)

Ingredients.—Cold chicken to each ½ lb. allow 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, ½ a pint of stock, salt and pepper, poached eggs.

Method.—Chop the chicken finely, boil the bones and trimmings for at least 1½ hours, and use the stock for the sauce. Melt the butter, stir in the flour, add the stock and boil gently for 20 minutes. Season to taste, add the minced chicken, draw the stewpan aside, then let it remain until the contents are thoroughly hot, and serve garnished with neatly poached and trimmed eggs.

Time.—Allow ¾ of an hour, after the stock is made. Average Cost, 1s. 3d., exclusive of the chicken. Allow 1 lb. of chicken and 6 eggs for 4 or 5 persons.

1178.—CHICKEN PANADA. (Fr.Panade de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—4 to 5 ozs. of raw chicken, ½ a gill of cream, pepper and salt.

Method.—Pass the chicken freed from skin and bone 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine, then place it in a buttered jar, cover closely, stand the jar in a saucepan containing a little boiling water, and simmer constantly for nearly 1 hour. Pound the chicken in a mortar, adding the liquid in the jar, season to taste, and pass the mixture through a wire sieve. Whip the cream slightly, stir in the chicken preparation, and serve on toast or in ramakin cases. If preferred, the panada may be heated in a saucepan, and served on hot buttered toast.

Time.—To cook the chicken, about 1 hour. Average Cost, about 1s. 8d. Sufficient for 2 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Eggs for Hatching. —Eggs intended for the hatching should be removed as soon as laid, and placed in a dry cool place. Choose those that are nearly of the same size, for as a rule, eggs equally thick at both ends contain a double yolk, and are worthless. Eggs intended for hatching should not be stored longer than a month it is preferable to keep them a less time. In winter nine to eleven eggs are sufficient to place under a hen in warmer weather this number may be increased to thirteen, and if it be very hot to fifteen. The egg should be carefully tested by candle light when they have been sat upon for a few days the seventh or eighth evening will be sufficiently early. All clear eggs should be removed they will serve excellently for puddings, etc. The fertile eggs should be opaque or clouded, and must be carefully replaced under the hen without shaking. If during incubation an egg should be broken, it must be removed, and the remainder taken out and cleansed in tepid water, otherwise the contents of the broken egg will cause the others to cling to the hen's fathers, and they too may become fractured. Many eggs are now hatched by artificial incubators, at a steady temperature of 101° to 104°. It is important that eggs hatched in this manner should be fresh.

1179.—CHICKEN PATTIES. (Fr.Bouchées à la Reine.)

Ingredients.—4 to 6 ozs. of cold boiled chicken, 2 ozs. of cooked ham, 6 button mushrooms, 1 truffle, 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice, salt and pepper, ¼ of a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces, No. 178), puff paste.

Method.—Chop the chicken and ham not too finely, cut the mushrooms and truffle into small dice, and mix all together. Stamp out 9 or 10 patty cases from the puff paste and mark the centres with a smaller cutter to form the lids (see Oyster Patties.) Bake in a quick oven, then scoop out the soft inside, take care of the lids, and keep the cases hot until ​ required. Have the Béchamel sauce ready in a stewpan, add to it the chicken preparation, season with salt and pepper, put in the lemon-juice, and stir the mixture over the fire until thoroughly hot. Fill the cases, put on the lids, and serve, garnished with tufts of fresh or fried parsley.

Time.—To bake the pastry, from 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 2s. Sufficient for 8 or 9 patties.

Hatching. —Sometimes the chick within the shell is unable to break away from its prison for the white of the egg will occasionally harden in the air to the consistence of joiners' glue, when the poor chick is in a terrible fix. All able writer says: "Assistance in hatching must not be rendered prematurely, and thence unnecessarily, but only in the case of the chick being plainly unable to release itself then, indeed, an addition may probably be made to the brood, as great numbers are always lost in this way. The chick makes a circular fracture at the big end of the egg, and a section of about one-third of the length of the shell being separated, delivers the prisoner, provided there is no obstruction from adhesion of the body to the membrane which lines the shell. Between the body of the chick and the membrane of the shell there exists a viscous fluid, the white of the egg thickened with the intense heat of incubation, until it becomes a positive glue. When this happens the feathers stick fast to the shell, and the chicks remain confined, and must perish if not released."

The method of assistance to be rendered to chicks which have a difficulty in releasing themselves from the shells is to take the egg in the hand, and dipping the finger or a piece of linen rag in warm water, to apply it to the fastened parts until they are loosened by the gluey substance becoming dissolved and separated from the feathers. The chick, then, being returned to the nest, will extricate itself—a mode generally to be observed—since, if violence were used, it would prove fatal. Nevertheless, breaking the shell may sometimes be necessary and separating with the fingers, as gently as may be, the membrane from the feathers, which are still to be moistened as mentioned above, to facilitate the operation. The points of small scissors may be useful, and when there is much resistance, as also apparent pain to the bird, the process must be conducted in the gentlest manner, and the shell separated into a number of small pieces. The signs of a need of assistance are the egg being partly pecked and chipped, and the chick discontinuing its efforts for five or six hours. Weakness from cold may disable the chicken from commencing the operation of pecking the shell, which must then be artificially performed with a circular fracture, similar to that made by the bird itself

1180.—CHICKEN PIE. (Fr.Pâté de Volaille à l'Anglaise.)

Ingredients.—1 large or 2 small chickens, ½ a lb. of ham or bacon, 2 hard-boiled eggs, veal forcemeat balls, No. 412, ¾ of a pint of chicken stock, 1 yolk of egg, salt and pepper, puff paste ,

Method.—Divide the chickens into neat joints, cut off the legs and wings at the first joint, and boil these with the backbones, necks and gizzards for about 2 hours, then strain and use for stock. Parboil the livers, chop them very finely, and mix them with the forcemeat. Cut the ham into strips, and the eggs into sections or slices. Place the pieces of chicken and the prepared ingredients in a pie-dish in layers, season carefully with salt and pepper, ¾ fill the dish with stock. Roll out the paste, cover the piedish with it, ornament, and brush over with yolk of egg. Bake from 1¼ to 1½ hours, in a quick oven, until the paste has risen and set, and then more slowly. Before serving, add the remainder of the hot stock to the pie. If preferred, the bones may be removed and the pieces of chicken stuffed with sausage-meat, or the veal forcemeat may be used for this purpose instead of being made into balls. See also the forcemeat used in making "Lark Pie."

Time.—To bake the pie, from 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, if with 2 chickens, about 8s. Sufficient for 7 or 8 persons.

1181.—CHICKEN PILLAFF. (Fr.Pillau de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken or fowl, 3 pints of stock (or 3 pints of water and 2 lb. of scrag end of neck of mutton), 6 ozs. of Patna rice, 4 ozs. of butter, 2 Spanish onions, 2 small onions, 1 tablespoonful of curry paste, 1 carrot, 1 blade of mace, 6 black peppercorns, salt, pepper.

Method.—Divide the chicken into pieces convenient for serving, remove the skin and the feet and wings at the first joint. Put the backbone, neck, giblets, bones and trimmings into a stewpan with the stock (or the water and mutton cut into small pieces), add the outside layer of each Spanish onion, the carrot, mace and peppercorns, and boil gently for 2 or 3 hours, then strain. Heat 2 ozs. of butter in a stewpan, cut the Spanish onions into dice, fry them until lightly browned, add the rice (previously well washed and drained), 1½ pints of stock, season with salt and pepper, and cook the ingredients gently by the side of the fire. Melt the remaining 2 ozs. of butter, fry the pieces of chicken slowly until nicely browned, keep them hot until the rice has absorbed the greater part of the stock, then put them with the curry-paste into the stewpan and mix well with the rice. Continue the cooking until the rice and chicken are perfectly tender, adding more stock if necessary. A few minutes before serving re-heat the butter in which the chicken was fried, cut the 2 small onions into thin slices, and fry them brown. Pile the pillau in the centre of a hot dish, scatter on the rings of fried onion, and serve.

Time.—About 1 hour, after the stock is made. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

The Young Chicks. —The young chicks which are first hatched should be taken from underneath the hen, otherwise she may think her task accomplished, and leave the remaining eggs to spoil. As soon as the young birds are taken from the mother they should be placed in a basket lined with, soft wool, flannel or hay, and placed in the sun if it be summer, or near to the fire if it be winter. A common, but unnecessary practice, is to cram the young chicks with food as soon as they are born, but if kept warm they will receive no harm if they are not supplied with food for twenty-four hours after their birth. If the whole of the brood is not hatched by that time, those that are born may be fed with bread soaked in milk and the yolk of a hard-boiled egg with Emden grits, or food of a similar nature.

1182.—CHICKEN, POTTED. (Fr.Terrine de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—The remains of cold roast chicken to every lb. allow 3 ozs. of cooked ham, 4 ozs. of butter, nutmeg, salt and pepper, clarified butter.

Method.—Pass the chicken and ham 2 and 3 times through the mincing machine, or chop them finely then pound in a mortar until smooth, adding seasoning to taste and the butter gradually. Rub through a fine wire sieve, press into small pots, and cover the contents with clarified butter.

Average Cost.—1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d.


See "Chicken Forcemeat," No. 1162.

1184.—CHICKEN, PURÉE OF, WITH RICE. (Fr.Purée de Poulet au Riz.)

Ingredients.—4 ozs. of finely-chopped cooked chicken, 2 ozs. of finely-chopped cooked ham, 4 ozs. of rice, white stock, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt and pepper, chopped truffle.

Method.—Blanch the rice, drain well, cover with white stock, and cook gently until tender and dry. Pound the chicken and ham until smooth, moistening gradually with a little stock, and pass these ingredients through a wire sieve. Stir in the cream, season to taste, make thoroughly hot, stirring meanwhile, and add stock, a little at a time, until the preparation is reduced to the consistency of thick cream. Turn into 5 or 6 well-buttered scallop shells, arrange the rice to form a narrow border, sprinkle the surface with truffle, and serve.

Time.—Altogether, about 1½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Feeding and Cooping the Chicks. —When all the chicks are hatched they should be placed with the mother hen under a coop, in a warm dry place. If two hens happen to have broods at the same time, care must be taken to keep their broods separate, for should they become mixed and go under the same coop, the hens will probably maim and destroy the chicks which do not belong to them. After being kept snug beneath the coop for a week—the coop being placed under cover at nightfall—the chicks may be allowed to run about for an hour or so during the warmest part of the day. They should be gradually weaned from the soaked bread and chopped egg, and grits or boiled barley substituted. In eight or ten days their stomachs will be sufficiently strong to receive bruised barley, and, if healthy, at the end of three weeks, the chicks will be able to take care of themselves. It is well, however, to watch over them for a week or so longer, to prevent older chickens driving them away from their food. Great care should be taken that the very young chicks do not run about the wet ground or on damp grass, which causes the chief and most fatal disease to which the young birds are liable. While under the coop with the hen a shallow pan of water should be supplied to the chicks, as they are apt to drench themselves and take cold, or get drowned in a deep vessel.

Detached nesting-boxes containing finely-sifted moist sand or cinder ashes, good straw, and a little hay on top, should be placed against the walls of the house, which is preferable to fixed rows of nests, since they can readily be moved, limewashed and cleansed. In front of the house a wired-in run should be provided, not less than six feet in height, and as long in extent as possible. The floor of the run should be covered with sifted ashes or good gravel, the latter being very helpful to the birds in assisting the process of digestion.

1185.—CHICKEN, QUENELLES OF. (Fr.Quenelles de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—8 ozs. of raw chicken, 2 ozs. of flour, ½ an oz. of butter, ¼ of a pint of stock or water, 2 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, salt and pepper.

Method.—Melt the butter, stir in the flour, add the stock, let boil whilst stirring. This will produce the panada which put aside to cool. Shred or mince the chicken meat finely, or pass it through a mincing machine, pound well in the mortar, adding the panada by degrees and each egg separately, season well, and rub through a fine wire or hair sieve. Whip the cream slightly, and stir it lightly into the chicken purée. Poach a little of the preparation and, if too stiff, add a little more stock or cream. See "Quenelles of Veal" for directions for shaping, cooking and serving.

1186.—CHICKEN, RAMAKINS OF. (Fr.Soufflés de Volaille en Caisses.)

Ingredients.—6 ozs. of raw chicken, ¼ of a pint of cream, 4 yolks of eggs, 2 whites of eggs, ½ an oz. of butter, 2 mushrooms, 1 truffle, salt and pepper.

Method.—Shred the chicken meat finely, or pass it through a mincing machine, then pound it well in the mortar, adding by degrees the yolks of 4 eggs, season well, and rub through a fine wire sieve. Whip the cream slightly, and whisk the whites of eggs to a stiff froth, and then add with the mushrooms and truffle cut into small dice, to the chicken purée. Mix lightly together, and put the mixture into 8 well-buttered china or paper ramakin cases. The cases should not be more than three parts filled, as the mixture rises considerably in baking. Place the cases on a baking-sheet and cook them in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes. Serve in the cases, and, if liked, send hot Béchamel or other suitable sauce to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—To bake, from 18 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 8 cases.

The Fowl House. —In constructing a fowl house, care should be taken to build it against a wall or fence facing the south, or in one corner, so that the garden or fence forms two of the sides. The corner should if possible face south or south-east, thus sheltering the fowls from cold-winds, and driving rains or sleet. The side and end of the fowl house should be built of sound weather boarding, and the roof of the same material with a good fall, so that the rain may run off quickly. The door with a slide should be placed in the corner of the house furthest away from the corner leading into the fowl run. The floor of the house should slope half an inch to the foot from back to front, to ensure good drainage. If practicable, it should be made of concrete, to keep away rats or other vermin. Failing this material a good floor may be formed of chalk and dry soil, mixed together and well rammed down. Upon this some three inches of dry ashes should be sifted, and kept regularly raked. The perches should be of good size and rounded, arranged like steps, not placed one above the other—the ends falling into sockets, so that they may be easily taken out and cleaned. Convenient slips of wood should be driven into the wall, to render access to the perches as easy as possible. Ventilation, which is essential to the health of fowls, should be at the top of the house, and the amount of air admitted regulated by a sliding door light is also important for the birds one or two small panes of glass should therefore be let into the house front on the sunny side.


See "Fowl, Hashed," Recipe No. 1224.

1188.—CHICKEN, RISSOLES OR RISSOLETTES OF. (Fr.Rissolettes de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—About 4 ozs. of cooked chicken, 2 ozs. of cooked ham or tongue, 4 button mushrooms, 1 small truffle, ½ an oz. of butter, ½ an oz. of flour, ¼ of a pint of white stock, 1 tablespoonful of cream, salt and pepper, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat, rough puff paste.

Method.—Chop the chicken and ham finely, cut the mushrooms and truffle into small dice. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, add the stock, stir and boil well. Put in the chicken and ham, season to taste, mix the ingredients well over the fire, then add the mushrooms, truffle and cream, and put aside to cool. Roll out the ​ paste as thinly as possible—stamp it out into rounds of about 2 inches diameter, pile a teaspoonful of the preparation in the centre, wet the edges with water, place another round of paste on the top, and press the edges together neatly. Brush over with egg and cover with breadcrumbs, and fry until lightly browned in hot fat. If preferred, half the quantity of the meat mixture may be enclosed in 1 round of paste, one half of which must be folded over to form them into half-moon shapes variety may be introduced by substituting crushed vermicelli for the breadcrumbs.

Time.—Altogether, 1½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. to 1s. 3d. Sufficient for 8 to 12 rissoles, according to the size made.

1189.—CHICKEN, ROASTED. (Fr.Poulet Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 good chicken, 2 or 3 slices of bacon, ½ a pint of stock, fat for basting, salt and pepper, bread sauce (see Sauces, No. 180), a few drops of liquid caramel, watercress.

Method.—Truss the chicken for roasting, prick the entire surface of the breast with the point of a metal skewer or trussing needle, skewer over it the slices of bacon, baste well with hot fat, and roast before a clear fire or in a moderate oven for about 1 hour. Baste frequently, and a few minutes before serving remove the bacon for the breast to brown. Meanwhile simmer the neck (and the liver and gizzard when not trussed in the wings) in the stock. When the chicken is sufficiently cooked remove it to a dish, drain off every particle of fat, taking care not to disturb the sediment, pour in the stock, boil for 2 or 3 minutes, season and colour to taste, and strain into a sauceboat. Have ready the watercress well washed, drained, and season lightly with salt and pepper, and use as garnish. Serve both gravy and bread sauce separately.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient from 4 to 6 persons.

Note. —The pricking of the breast is not essential, but some cooks prefer this way.

1190.—CHICKEN, ROASTED, FRENCH STYLE. (Fr.Poulet Rôti à la Française.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, 1 oz. of butter, 1½ gills of stock. For the mirepoix, or foundation: 1 small onion, 1 carrot, 2 or 3 slices of bacon, salt and pepper, bread sauce (see Sauces No. 180), watercress for garnish.

Method.—Draw the chicken, wash the liver and heart, and put them aside cut off the legs just below the first joint, truss for roasting, and spread the butter thickly over the breast. Slice the vegetables, put them into a baking-tin with the bacon, and the liver and heart of the chicken, fry these a little, then place the chicken on the top of the ​ mirepoix, season well with salt and pepper, and cook in a quick oven for about 40 minutes. Baste frequently, and, if necessary, cover the breast with buttered paper to prevent it becoming too brown. When the chicken is done, remove the trussing string and skewers and keep hot. Drain the fat from the baking-tin, add the stock, boil for 2 or 3 minutes, season it to taste, and strain. Garnish the chicken with tufts of crisp watercress, and serve the gravy and bread sauce separately.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 4s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

Characteristics of Health and Power. —The chief characteristics of health in a fowl are brightness and dryness of eye and nostrils, the comb and wattles firm and ruddy, and the feathers elastic and glossy. The most useful cock is generally the greatest tyrant, who struts among his hens despotically, with his head erect, and with ever watchful eyes. A cock to be handsome should be of medium size, his bill short, his comb bright red, his wattles large, his breast broad, and his wings strong. His head should be small, his legs short and sturdy, and his spurs well-formed his feathers should be short and close, and the more frequently and heartily he crows, the better father he is likely to become. Medium-sized hens are, as the rule, the best for breeding purposes.

1191.—CHICKEN SALAD. (Fr.Salade de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—Cold chicken (roast or boiled) cut into joints or pieces if boned to 4 tablespoonfuls allow 2 tablespoonfuls of finely-shredded celery, 1 tablespoonful of finely shredded white of hard boiled egg, 4 tablespoonfuls of Mayonnaise sauce (see Sauces, No. 201), 1 dessertspoonful of salad-oil, 1 dessertspoonful of vinegar, ½ a teaspoonful of salt, ¼ of a teaspoonful of pepper. For garnishing: pickled gherkins, capers, fillets of anchovy, stoned French olives, lettuce.

Method.—Mix the shredded chicken, celery, and white of egg together, in a bowl, stir in the salad-oil and vinegar, season with the salt and pepper, and let the mixture stand for 1 hour. When ready to serve, stir in the Mayonnaise sauce, range the salad in a dish on a bed of crisp lettuce, garnish the surface with the gherkins, capers, anchovies, olives, and, if liked, the yolks of eggs, previously rubbed through a fine sieve.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. 3d. for this quantity. Sufficient for 5 persons.

1192.—CHICKEN SAUTÉ. (Fr.Poulet Sauté.)

See "Chicken à la Marengo," Recipe No. 1149, and "Fowl Fried, with Peas," No. 1230.

1193.—CHICKEN, SMALL SOUFFLÉS OF. (Fr.Petits Soufflés de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—4 to 5 ozs. of raw chicken, ¼ of a pint of cream, 2 eggs, 1 truffle, salt and pepper, ½ a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces No. 178), salt, pepper.

Method.—Scrape the meat finely, pound it in a mortar with the yolks of the eggs, add seasoning to taste, and rub through a fine wire or hair sieve. Whip the cream slightly and whisk the whites of eggs to a stiff froth, add the mixture lightly to the chicken purée, put in the truffle cut into dice, and ¾ fill some well-buttered china or paper ramakin cases with the mixture. Bake in a moderate oven for about 20 minutes, and serve the hot sauce in a sauce-boat.

Time.—To prepare and cook, about 1 hour. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 1 dish.

1194.—CHICKEN, SOUFFLÉ OF. (Fr.Soufflé de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw chicken, 1½ ozs. of butter, the whites of 2 eggs, the yolk of 1 egg, ¼ of a pint of cream, pepper and salt, ½ a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces No. 178).

Method.—Shred the chicken meat finely, or pass it through a mincing machine, then pound it in the mortar with the butter and yolk of egg, season with salt and pepper, and rub through a fine wire sieve. Whip the cream slightly and whisk the whites of egg stiffly, and add them lightly to the chicken purée. Place in a well-buttered soufflé (plain Charlotte) mould, cover with a buttered paper, and steam gently from 50 to 60 minutes. Or, fill up several small dariol moulds, and steam for about 25 minutes. Serve with the white sauce poured over, and, if liked, decorate with finely-chopped truffle.

Time.—60 to 90 minutes. Average Cost, 4s. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

Stocking the fowl House. —In selecting birds for stocking a fowl-house care should be taken that they are not more than two years old. The surest indications of old age in fowls are the fading of the comb and gills from brilliant red to a dingy brick colour, general paleness of plumage, brittleness of the feathers, length and size of the claws, and the ragged and corny appearance of the scales of the legs and feet. The selection will be dependent upon the purposes for which the fowls are to be kept, and the accommodation for keeping them. If the poultry is designed for the table, Dorkings, Game, Houdans are good breeds for that purpose. If for laying, Minorcas, Orpingtons, Wyandottes, Hamburgs, Leghorns, Polish and Spanish fowls are suitable. If both poultry and eggs are the object, Brahmas, or Langshans, and Brahmas crossed with one or other of the above breeds, will be found the best. If the object be the breeding of birds for exhibition the fancier will choose the particular bird he desires for competition.

1195.—CHICKEN, SPATCHCOCK. (Fr.Poulet à la Crapodine.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, butter, salt and pepper. Tartare, piquante, or other sharp sauce (see Sauces) 4 to 5 thin slices of bacon.

Method.—Split the bird in half, cutting it through the back only, cut off the legs and wings at the first joints, and arrange in a flat form by means of skewers. Brush over with warm butter, season with salt and pepper, and grill over or in front of a clear fire for about 15 minutes. Turn frequently, brush over with butter, and when done ​ season lightly with salt and pepper. Remove the skewers, dish up, garnish with fried bacon, and serve with it in a sauce-boat one of the above-named sauces.

Time.—About 25 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

1196.—CHICKEN, TIMBALES OF. (Fr.Petites Timbales de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw chicken, 1½ ozs. of butter, the whites of 2 eggs, the yolk of 1 egg, ¼ of a pint of cream, pepper and salt, ½ a pint of Béchamel (see Sauces, No. 178), macaroni.

Method.—Boil the macaroni in salted water until tender, cut it across into rings about ⅛ th of an inch in thickness, and with the rings line several well-buttered timbale moulds. The rings should be arranged as evenly as possible and the somewhat tedious task may be facilitated by using the point of a larding needle to fix them in position. Prepare the chicken purée as directed for "Soufflé of Chicken," No. 1194. Fill the prepared mould with the mixture. Steam the timbales 25 to 35 minutes, arrange neatly on a hot dish, pour the sauce round, and serve.

Time.—1 hour Average Cost, 3s. 9d. to 4s. 3d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

Hens Sitting .—Some hens are very capricious as regards sitting they will make a great fuss and keep pining for the nest, but when they are permitted to sit will remain just long enough to addle the eggs, and they will leave them. To guard against this annoyance it will be found to be a good plan to supply the hen with some hard-boiled eggs if she sits upon them for a reasonable time and seems inclined to remain, it will then be safe to supply her with proper eggs.

1197.—CURRIED CHICKEN. (Fr.Kari de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, ¾ of a pint of white stock, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 1 teaspoonful of curry paste, 1 dessertspoonful of desiccated or fresh cocoanut, 1 dessertspoonful of chutney, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 apple, 1 onion, salt, cooked rice.

Method.—Divide the chicken into neat joints, and fry them lightly in hot butter. Remove them from the stewpan, put in the onion minced, fry for 2 or 3 minutes without browning, add the flour and curry powder, stir and cook for a few minutes, then pour in the stock and stir until boiling. Replace the chicken in the stewpan, add the curry-paste, cocoanut, chutney, sliced apple, lemon-juice, and salt to taste, cover and cook very gently for about ¾ of an hour if the bird is young, or until the flesh of an older bird is tender. Arrange neatly, add the cream to the sauce, and strain over the chicken. The rice should be handed separately.

Time.—From 1½ to 1¾ hours. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 persons.

Fowls as Food. —The fine and delicate flavour of the flesh of birds, which are included under the category of "poultry," readers it alike palatable and nourishing for both the delicate and the robust, and by the skill of the cook it can be served at the table boiled, roasted, fried, fricasseed, hashed, hot, cold, whole, dismembered, boned, broiled, in the form of cream or souffles, or as pies to please every taste, and adapted to suit the most delicate digestion.

1198.—CURRIED CHICKEN OR FOWL. (Fr.Poulet à l'Indienne.)

Ingredients.—Remains of cold roast chickens or fowls, 1 onion, 1 apple, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful of red currant jelly or chutney, 2 ozs. of butter, ¾ of a pint of stock, salt, cooked rice.

Method.—Divide the chicken into neat joints, simmer the bones and trimmings in stock or water for 1½ or 2 hours, then strain and use. Slice the onion, fry it lightly in the hot butter, add the flour and curry-powder, stir over the fire for 2 or 3 minutes, pour in the stock, and bring to the boil, stirring all the time. Now add the sliced apple, chutney, and salt to taste, cover, and simmer gently for ½ an hour, then put in the pieces of chicken and let them remain in the sauce for 30 minutes, but the stewpan must stand where the contents will be kept hot without boiling. When ready, arrange the chicken neatly add the lemon-juice to the sauce, season to taste, and strain over the chicken. Rice should be served separately.

Time.—About 1½ hours, after the stock is made. Average Cost, 2s. 9d. to 3s.

Age and Flavour of Chickens. —The flesh of young chickens is the most delicate and easily assimilated of animal foods, which makes it especially suitable for invalids and persons whose digestion is weak. Few animals undergo so great a change with regard to the quality of their flesh as the domestic fowl. When quite young, cocks and hens are equally tender, but as chickens grow older the flesh of the cock is the first to toughen, and a cock a year old is fit only for conversion into soup. A hen of the same age affords a substantial and palatable dish. This rule respecting age does not apply to capons, which, when well-fed and well-dressed for the table, are surpassed by few animals for delicacy of flavour. Even when three years old the capon is as tender as a chicken, with the additional advantage that his proper chicken flavour is more fully developed. The above remarks are applicable only to capons naturally fed and not crammed. The latter process may produce a handsome-looking and heavy bird, but when tested by cooking its inferiority will be only too apparent. As a rule small-boned and short-legged poultry are generally the more delicate in colour, flavour and fineness of flesh.

1199.—CHICKEN, VOL-AU-VENT OF. (Fr.Vol-au-Vent de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 lb. of puff paste, a pint of Béchamel or Supreme sauce (see Sauces), 6 ozs. of cooked chicken, 2 ozs. of cooked ham or tongue, 2 truffles, 6 mushrooms, salt and pepper, aromatic spice.

Method.—When the paste has had 6 turns, roll it out to about ¾ of an inch in thickness, and cut it into either a round or oval form, as may be desired and place on a baking tin. Brush over the top of the ​ paste shape with beaten egg, make an inner ring, cutting the paste to about half its depth, and bake in a quick oven. Meanwhile, cut the chicken and ham into dice shapes or small cubes, cut the mushrooms and truffles into small slices, stir the whole into the hot Béchamel sauce, season with salt, pepper and aromatic spice, and make thoroughly hot. When the vol-au-vent case is sufficiently baked, remove the lid, scoop out the soft inside, fill with the prepared ragoût, put on the cover, and serve hot.

Time.—¾ of an hour, after the paste is made. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. to 5s. Sufficient for 6 to 8 persons.

The Moulting Season. —During the moulting season, beginning properly at the end of September fowls require extra attention, for although moulting is not itself a disease, it frequently leads to weakness and subsequent illness. Tonics, as Parish's Food and cod liver oil, or a small quantity of iron in the drinking water nourishing food with abundance of green food should be given. Should the feathers, especially the head feathers, not come out, the dead feathers may be extracted with a pair of tweezers. A strong bird will usually get over his moulting in about three weeks.

1200.—CHICKEN ROAST, STUFFED WITH HERBS. (Fr.Poulet rôti aux Fines Herbes.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 tablespoonful of shredded onion, 2 tablespoonfuls of shredded carrot, 1 teaspoonful each of chopped parsley, chervil, tarragon, or other herbs which are liked, 1 glass of white wine, ¾ of a pint of stock. For the forcemeat: 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 teaspoonful each of finely chopped parsley, shallots, chervil and tarragon, the liver of the chicken, 1 oz. of oiled butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the gall bladder, wash and chop the liver, finely, and add to it the breadcrumbs, parsley, shallots, chervil, and tarragon, with a liberal seasoning of salt and pepper. Add sufficient oiled butter to moisten the whole, stuff the crop of the bird with the preparation, secure the opening, and retruss the bird. Roast the chicken in front of a clear fire, or in a moderately hot oven for about 50 minutes basting frequently. Meanwhile melt the remaining 1½ oz. of butter in a stewpan, fry the onion and carrot slightly, add the flour, and cook gently until lightly browned. Put in the stock, stir until boiling, season to taste, add the wine, and about a teaspoonful of parsley, chervil and tarragon mixed, simmer gently for ¼ an hour, then strain. Serve with a little of the sauce poured round, and send the remainder to table separately.

Time.—To roast the chicken, about 40 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

1201.—CHICKEN WITH MACARONI. (Fr.Poulet à la Milanaise.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, ¼ of a lb. of macaroni, ¼ of a pint of tomato sauce (see Sauces, No. 281), ¼ of a pint of Espagnole sauce, No. 244, ​ a few drops of lemon-juice or Tarragon vinegar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the chicken until half cooked in stock, or, if this is not at hand, in water flavoured with vegetables. Put the macaroni into salted boiling water and cook rapidly for 15 or 20 minutes, until it is perfectly tender but not broken, then drain well, and cut into short lengths. Heat the sauces in a stewpan, and when the chicken is sufficiently cooked, cut it into pieces convenient for serving, and put them into the sauce. Add the macaroni, salt, pepper, lemon-juice or vinegar to taste, and simmer very gently for ¾ of an hour. Arrange the macaroni to form a bed in the centre of a hot dish, place the chicken on the top of it, strain the sauce over, and serve.

Time.—From 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

The Diseases of Fowls and their Cure. —Fowls are liable to various diseases the most dangerous of these is, perhaps, roup, a highly contagious disease. It commences with a cold, and is characterized by a thick discharge from the nostrils and eyes, which, unless the bird is at once isolated, will infect the other birds, especially through the medium of the drinking water. The vessels which contain it should be thoroughly disinfected. The nostrils and eyes of the isolated bird should be well washed out with warm water, or warm milk and water, and disinfectants, as Condy's Fluid, Labarrague's solution of chlorinated soda, one part to two of water, and Gamjees' Roup Pills, may he administered with advantage. When recovering, tonics, as Parish's Food and cod liver oil, will be serviceable. Fresh air and good ventilation in the fowl houses are the best preventatives of this dangerous disease.

1202.—CHICKEN, WITH RICE AND TOMATOES. (Fr.Poulet au riz à la Milanaise.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, larding bacon, 2 onions, 2 carrots, 1 turnip, all thickly sliced, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 10 peppercorns, stock, ¼ of a pint of tomato purée, 3 ozs. of grated Parmesan cheese, salt and pepper.

Method.—Truss the chicken, lard the breast in close rows, and wrap it in greased paper. Put the vegetables, herbs and peppercorns into a stewpan, add sufficient stock to nearly cover them, and place the chicken on the top. Cover closely, cook gently for about 1½ hours, adding more stock to replace that which boils away. Wash and blanch the rice, cook it in good stock until tender and dry, then stir in the tomato purée and cheese, and season to taste. Put the chicken in a hot oven for a few minutes, to crisp the bacon, then serve with the rice either as a border or formed into timbales.

Time.—About 1¾ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Obstruction of the Crop. —This ailment is commonly caused by weakness or greediness. To cure it, the crop should be kneaded to remove its contents if no good effect is produced, warm water should be poured down the throat, and another attempt made. The crop should if possible be emptied through the mouth, and a dessertspoonful of castor oil administered. If the crop cannot be emptied by kneading, it will be necessary to cut it, taking care that the incision avoids the large blood vessels, and is sufficiently large to admit a finger or teaspoon for the removal of the obstruction. A fine needle and horsehair or fine silk should be used to stitch up the crop, care being taken to stitch together first the inner skin and then the outer skin of the crop. Sometimes a diamond-shaped piece is cut from the crop before sewing it up, to contract the crop if it is permanently loose.

1203.—CHICKEN, WITH SUPREME SAUCE. (Fr.Suprême de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, ¾ of a pint of Supreme sauce (see "Sauces" No. 262), white stock, garnish of truffles or macedoine of vegetables.

Method.—Stew the chicken in stock until tender, then divide it into neat joints, put the back aside, and pile the remainder on a hot dish. Pour the sauce over, garnish with truffles or mixed vegetables, and serve.

Time.—From 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable at any time.

The Turn. —The malady called "turning" among song-birds is known as the "turn" in fowls. In both cases its origin is similar—overfeeding and want exercise. A fowl so affected will totter and then fall from its perch, and unless assistance be speedily given will soon die. The veins of the palate should be opened, and a few drops of a mixture composed of six parts of sweet nitre and one part of ammonia poured down the throat.

1204.—CHICKEN WITH ITALIAN SAUCE. (Fr.Poulet à la Italienne.)

Ingredients.—1 chicken, trussed for roasting, ¾ of a pint of Italian sauce (see Sauces). For the macédoine, or vegetable mixture: carrot, turnip, leek, celery, 1 oz. of butter, pepper and salt, chopped parsley.

Method.—Roast the chicken in front of a clear fire, or in a moderate oven, and cut it into pieces convenient for serving. Cut the vegetables with a plain ½-inch diameter cutler into rounds about ¼-inch in thickness, boil them separately in salted water, and drain well. Melt the butter in a stewpan, put in the vegetables, season with pepper, and toss them over the fire until the butter is absorbed. Arrange the chicken in the centre of a hot dish, strain the hot sauce over, group the vegetables round the base, sprinkle over them the chopped parsley, and serve.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

Skin Diseases in Fowls. —Cutaneous diseases are acquired by fowls kept in unventilated and dark places, but where the birds are lodged in healthy quarters such diseases are not likely to occur. Want of freedom, fresh air and insect food are the predisposing causes of such ailments, which are characterised by the falling of the feathers from the head and neck. By removing the causes a cure is effected.

1205.—CHICKEN, COLD, GARNISHED. (Fr.Chaud-froid de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—2 cold boiled fowls, 1 pint of Béchamel (No. 175) or Supreme sauce (No. 212), ½ a pint of aspic jelly, 1 oz. of gelatine. For garnish: dressed salad, truffle, chili, aspic jelly.

Method.—Divide the chickens into pieces of convenient size, skin and trim them neatly. Dissolve the gelatine, previously soaked, in a little cold water, add it to the warm Béchamel sauce, stir until cool, then pour it carefully over the pieces of chicken. Decorate with fancifully-cut pieces of truffle and chili, and when the sauce is quite set, coat with cold liquid aspic jelly, pouring it carefully over each piece with a tablespoon. Arrange in a pyramidal form on a bed of dressed salad, and garnish with slices of cucumber, tufts of endive and cubes of aspic or the aspic jelly may be coarsely chopped.

Time.—1 hour. Average Cost, 8s. to 9s. Sufficient for 9 or 10 persons.

Note.—Considerable variety may be introduced by using tomato, Espagnole, and green chaud-froid sauces (see Sauces), the combination of green and white, and brown and red being particularly effective.

Diarrhœa and Dysentery. —Sudden alteration of diet, superabundance of green food, and other causes, produce this complaint among fowls. In its less acute form a little arrowroot or ground rice mixed with water and made into a pill and followed by a diet of boiled rice, to which a little powdered chalk has been added, will be found a good remedy. An excellent prescription is composed of 5 grains of chalk, 5 grains of rhubarb, 3 grains of cayenne pepper made into a pill, with half a grain of opium added in severe cases. Chlorodyne, 2 to 6 drops in a teaspoon of warm water is used with good results. Dysentery, if acute, is difficult to cure, and the more merciful course is to kill the bird and bury it with disinfectants.

1206.—DUCK, BRAISED WITH CHESTNUTS. (Fr.Canard Braisé à la Française.)

Ingredients.—1 duck, 1 pint of stock, ¾ of a pint of Espagnole sauce (see Sauces No. 244), 1 glass of port wine, 1 dessertspoonful of red currant jelly, 1 Spanish onion, 1 lb. of chestnuts, larding bacon, 2 ozs. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs. For the mirepoix, or foundation: 2 onions, 2 carrots, 1 small turnip, 2 strips of celery, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 6 allspice, 2 cloves, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the chestnuts and remove the skins, cook the Spanish onion in stock or water until tender, chop both finely, season with salt and pepper, add the yolks of eggs, and use these for stuffing the duck. Truss the duck and lard it neatly Put the butter and sliced vegetables into a large stewpan, place the duck on the top of them, cover and fry gently for 20 minutes. Next add as much of the stock as will cover the vegetables, and the remainder as that in the stewpan boils away. Cover the duck with a buttered paper, put on the lid, and cook gently for about 2 hours, or until the duck is perfectly tender. Heat the Espagnole sauce, add to it the wine and jelly, and season to taste. Remove the trussing strings, and put the duck in a hot oven for a few minutes to crisp the bacon. Serve with a small quantity of the sauce poured over, and the remainder in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 5s. to 5s. 6d. Sufficient, for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

1207.—DUCK, BRAISED WITH TURNIPS. (Fr.Canard à la Nivernaise.)

Ingredients.—1 duck, 1 pint of good stock, larding bacon, ½ a glass of sherry, 3 young turnips, salt and pepper, mirepoix as in the preceding recipe, glaze.

Method.—Truss and lard the duck, and braise it as directed in the foregoing recipe. When cooked, brush over with warm glaze, and crisp the lardoons in the oven. Strain the stock and reduce it by rapid boiling until about half the liquid remains, then add the sherry, and season to taste. Have ready the turnips cut into dice, and cooked until tender. Place the duck on a hot dish, arrange the turnips in groups, pour the sauce round, and serve.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. to 5s. Sufficient, for 4 to 5 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

The Duck (Fr. Canard.)—This well-known bird is a member of the sub-family Anatidae, and is allied to the swans, geese, guillemots and gulls. There are numerous species of ducks which are found extensively distributed over most parts of the world. Their food is partly vegetable, partly animal, consisting of insects, larvae, and, in the domesticated state, of corn, maize, etc., worms and aquatic plants. Some species are migratory, flying in the summer season from warmer to colder regions. Their nests are constructed on the ground among the rushes on the margins of lakes or in marshy places. The male duck, or drake is distinguished from the female by its greater size, the recurved four middle feathers of its tail and the brighter colour of its plumage the feathers of the female being of a more sombre tint, but during the moulting season in June and November the drakes more nearly resembles the ducks. Ducks are gregarious in their habits. The characteristic harsh quack of the duck is due to the curiously twisted conformation of the trachea or windpipe.

1208.—DUCK, FILLETS OF. (Fr.Filets de Canard à la Bigarade.)

Ingredients.—1 good duck, ½ a pint of Bigarade sauce, No 226 (see Sauces), 2 small oranges, salad-oil, potato border, salt and pepper.

Method.—Singe, draw and truss the duck, and roast it in front of a clear fire or in a moderate oven until tender. Peel the oranges, separate them into their natural divisions, remove the pith and pips, warm over boiling water in a covered basin or between 2 plates and before serving mix with them a teaspoonful of salad-oil. Remove the breast from the duck, cut it into long fillets, arrange them neatly overlapping each other on a nicely-browned potato border, and pour the Bigarade sauce over. Pile the compote of oranges in the centre, and serve. The remainder the duck should be put aside, and afterwards converted into a salmi or hash (see recipes for same).

Time.—To roast the duck, from 40 to 60 minutes, according to size and age. Average Cost, 4s. to 6s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

The White Aylesbury Duck is a favourite bird for the table, its flesh being whiter and more delicate than that of other varieties.

The Buenos Ayres Duck is a very handsome bird, and is chiefly kept as an ornament for lakes and ponds in parks and the grounds of private mansions. Its prevailing colour is black with a metallic lusture, and a blue steel sheen on its breast and wings.

1209.—DUCK, HASHED. (Fr.Canard au Vin Rouge.)

Ingredients.—1 Cold roast duck, 1 pint of stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 orange, 1 onion, a glass of claret, salt, and pepper.

Method.—Divide the duck into pieces (joints) suitable for serving. Chop the onion finely, fry it in the butter, add the flour, stir over the fire until brown, then pour in the stock, stir until it boils, and simmer for 10 minutes. Cut the orange rind into very thin strips, add them with the juice of the orange, the wine and the duck to the sauce, season with salt and pepper, and simmer very gently for ½ an hour.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 6d., to 4s. 6d. Sufficient, allow 1 duck for 4 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

Varieties of Ducks. —Among the numerous species and varieties of ducks are the Canvas-back duck, a native of North America, and highly esteemed for the table the Muscovy-duck, an erroneous form of musk-duck (Cairina moschata), a native of South America, but domesticated in Europe. It is larger than the common duck, and possesses a peculiar musky smell. The Shoveller duck, an inhabitant of our island in the winter, is chiefly remarkable for its long bill and hooked widely-broadened tip. The plumage of the back is brown, with green on the head and neck. Its eggs are dirty-white tinted with green. The Pintail, which takes its name from the long tapering form of the tail of the male bird, inhabits Britain and the South of Europe in winter. The plumage of the pintail is brown, with white and black lines, and its flesh is palatable.

1210.—DUCK AND RED CABBAGE. (Fr.Canard au Chou rouge.)

Ingredients.—Remains of 2 or 3 cold ducks, ½ a red cabbage, 2 ozs. of butter, good gravy or stock, 1 tablespoonful of vinegar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash and drain the cabbage, and shred it finely. Heat the butter in a stewpan, put in the cabbage and a good seasoning of salt and pepper, cover closely, and cook gently for 1 hour, adding a little gravy or stock if necessary to prevent burning. Divide the ducks into neat joints, place them in a stewpan with just sufficient hot gravy or stock to barely cover them, put on a close-fitting lid, and allow the stewpan to stand just below simmering point for nearly 1 hour. When ready, add the vinegar to the cabbage, turn it on to a hot dish, arrange the duck neatly upon it, and serve with a little good gravy, either poured round or handed separately.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 6d., exclusive of the ducks. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable, September to January.

American Mode of Capturing Ducks. —Various methods of capturing ducks are employed on the rivers in America. Sometimes half a dozen artificial birds are fastened to a little raft, so weighted that the sham birds squat naturally in the water, and attract the notice of a passing flock of the wild ducks, which fall an easy prey to the fowling-piece of the hunter, concealed in ambush. Another method is pursued in the winter time by the fowler of the Delaware when the water is covered with rubble ice. He paints his canoe entirely white, lies down in the bottom of it, and floats with the broken ice the ducks being unable to distinguish between the colour of the canoe and that of the ice. As soon as the fowler recognizes by the quacking, fluttering, and whirring, of wings that he is in the midst of a flock he rises up suddenly, discharges his gun, and scatters a deadly leaden shower among the surprised birds.

1211.—DUCKS, ROASTED. (Fr.Canards Rôtis.)

Ingredients.—2 ducks, sage and onion stuffing No. 404 (see Forcemeats) ½ a pint of stock, ½ an oz. of flour, salt and pepper, apple sauce No. 316 (see Sauces).

Method.—Stuff the body of the ducks with the onion farce or stuffing and truss them as directed. Baste them well with hot fat, and roast them in front of a clear fire or in a moderately hot oven for about 1 hour, basting frequently. When done, pour off the fat and if a thick gravy is preferred, brown the flour in the dripping-pan before adding the stock. Bring the gravy to boiling point, season to taste, simmer for 1 or 2 minutes, and serve in a sauce-boat.

Time.—From 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 7s. to 8s. Sufficient for 8 to 9 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

Bow-Bill Ducks. —The short legs of the Anatidae or duck sub-family, from their backward position, cause the fore part of the body to preponderate, and produces the ungainly movement which charcterizes the duck when walking on land. Some species of ducks are, however, more adapted to terrestrial habits than others, and among these is the summer duck of America (Dendonessa sponsa). This handsome bird usually rears her young in the holes of trees which overhang the water. When sufficiently strong the duckling scramble to the mouth of the hole, launch into the air with their little wings and feet outstretched, and drop into the water. If the nest is situated some distance from the water, the mother carries them to it one by one in her bill, carefully holding each so that is sustains no injury. It has been noticed that when the tree is still further away from a stream or pool the duck allows her young to fall upon the grass and dry leaves beneath the tree and afterwards leads them directly to the water. Among the varieties of ducks some are interesting, owing to some singularity of appearance, as the bow-bill or hook-bill duck, so named from the distorted shape of its bill, and the Penguin-duck, which waddles in an upright position, and thus resembles its namesake.

1212.—DUCK, ROUENNAISE STYLE. (Fr.Canard à la Rouennaise.)

Ingredients.—1 large "Rouen" duck, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 tablespoonful of chopped shallots, a bouquet-garni (parsly, thyme, bay-leaf), ½ a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, 1 glass of claret, ½ a pint of stock, 1 desertspoonful of flour. For the stuffing: the heart and liver of the duck, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful of finely chopped parsley, 1 small onion parboiled and finely chopped, 1 oz. of butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the gall bladder from the liver, wash both liver and heart, and chop them finely. Add the breadcrumbs, parsley, onion, a good seasoning of salt and 1 oz. of butter, previously oiled. Stuff the duck with this preparation, secure the opening, and truss into shape. Heat the 2 ozs. of butter in a stewpan sufficiently large to hold the duck, put in the duck and chopped shallot, then fry until nicely browned. Remove the duck, sprinkle in the flour, let it brown, add the stock and claret, and stir until boiling. Replace the bird, add the bouquet-garni and lemon-juice, season to taste, cover closely, and braise in a moderately cool oven for about 1 hour, or until tender. Joint the duck, but keep it in shape, and serve with the sauce strained over.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 4s to 4s 6d. Sufficient ​ for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from March to September, but to be obtained all the year round.

The Rouen Duck , bred largely in Normandy, is a large and handsome variety of duck. Its plumage is somewhat sombre, and its flesh is darker and less delicate in flavour than the Aylesbury duck, with which breed the Rouen duck is usually mated, the result being an increase of size and strength. These ducks abound in Normandy and Brittany, and duck-liver patés are a popular relish in those districts.

The Shoveller-Duck is characterized by its long hooked bill, with a broadened tip. Its head and neck are green, and the colour of its body brown, with white underneath. It inhabits Britain during the winter.

1213.—DUCK, SALMI OF. (Fr.Salmis de Canard aux Olives.)

Ingredients.—1 duck (or remains of cold ducks), 12 stoned French olives, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, ¾ of a pint of stock, 1 medium-sized Spanish onion, fat for basting, salt and pepper.

Method.—Singe, draw, and truss the duck, slice the onion, and put it into a baking-tin place the duck on the top, baste with hot fat, and roast in a moderate oven for ½ an hour, basting frequently. In the meantime, melt the butter, stir in the flour, and cook over the fire until a brown roux or thickening is formed, then add the stock, stir until boiling, and simmer until required. When the duck is sufficiently roasted, remove the trussing string, cut the bird into small joints, add these with the olives to the sauce, season well, and simmer gently for about ½ an hour. Return the baking-tin to the oven until the slices of onion are tender, then rub them through a fine hair sieve, and add them to the contents of the stewpan. Drain off every particle of fat, and add the sediment in the baking-tin to the sauce. When it is ready dish the salmi in the centre of a hot dish on a croute of fried bread, pour over the sauce, and the olives. Serve hot.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 4s. to 5s. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

The Wild Duck. —In many parts of England the wild duck is to be found, especially in desolate fenny places where water is abundant. Wild ducks are plentiful in Lincolnshire, and are taken in the decoys, or ponds situated in the marshes, and surrounded with wood or reeds to prevent the birds which frequent them from being disturbed. The birds sleep in these ponds during the day, and as soon as the evening sets in the decoy-duck rises, for the wild ducks feed during the night. Now is the time for the decoy-ducks to entrap the others. From the ponds in different directions canals diverge, at the end of which funnel-shaped nets are placed. Along these the decoy-ducks lead the others in search of food. When they have gone a certain length a decoy-man appears, and drives the birds further on until they are finally taken in the nets. The London market is largely supplied from the Lincolnshire fens. The Chinese have a singular method of capturing wild ducks. A man having his head covered with an empty calabash wades in the water up to his chin, and approaches the place where the ducks are swimming. The unsuspicious birds allow the calabash to move among them at will. The man accordingly walks about in the midst of the game, pulls them by the legs under the water, and fixes the ducks to his belt until he has secured as many as he requires, and then moves off without the birds discovering the trick played upon them. This mode of duck-hunting is also practised on the Ganges, earthen vessels being used by the Hindus instead of calabashes.

The male of the wild duck is called a "mallard," and the young ducks "flappers." The time to try to find a brood of these is about the month of July among the rushes of the deepest and most retired parts of some brook or stream, where, if the old bird is sprung, it may be assumed that its brood is not far off. When once found flappers are easily killed, as they attain their full growth before their wings are fledged. The sport, therefore, more resembles hunting water-rats than shooting birds. When the flappers take wing they are then called wild ducks, and about the month of August they betake themselves to the cornfields, remaining there until disturbed by the harvest operations. The wild ducks then frequent the rivers early in the evening, and afford excellent sport to those who possess the patience to wait for the birds. To recognize a wild duck it is only necessary to look at its claws, which should be black.

1214.—DUCK, STEWED WHOLE. (Fr.Canard en Ragoût.)

Ingredients.—1 duck, 1 pint of brown stock, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 2 onions sliced, 2 sage leaves, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper.

Method.—Roast the duck, or bake it in a good oven for 20 minutes, then place it in a stewpan with the herbs and onions, and cook slowly for ¾ of an hour. Melt the butter, add the flour, and, when well browned, strain in the stock. Stir over the fire until a smooth sauce is obtained, then draw the stewpan aside, simmer gently for 20 minutes and strain. Serve the duck on a hot dish, pour over it some of the sauce, and send the remainder to table in a sauceboat.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 3d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

The Mallard or Wild Duck (Fr. canard sauvage).—Anas boschas is the original stock from which the numerous varieties of the domesticated duck have been derived. It is found throughout Europe, Asia and America. The plumage of the male is metallic green on the head and neck, the latter being encircled with a collar of white the body is of a dark chestnut colour, marked with black that of the female is of dull brown hue. In the spring the plumage of the male begins to fade, and in about two months the brilliancy of his feathers disappears, so that the male bird is scarcely distinguishable from the female. Then the greens and the blues and the browns begin to bud out again, and by October he is once more a gorgeous drake. It is a curious fact that domestication has seriously deteriorated the moral character of the duck. In the wild state the drake is a faithful husband, devoting himself to one wife, but in the domestic state he becomes a polygamist and owns a dozen wives. The females are much more solicitous for their progeny in the wild state than when tame, and if her ducklings are molested she will buffet the transgressor with her broad wings, and dash boldly into his face, striking vigorously with her stout beak. If her nest is searched for in the long grass, the mother bird will try by every means in her power to lure away the intruder, a favourite manœuvre being to simulate lameness to encourage pursuit and capture. After being pursued for half a mile or so, the bird will fly up and make her escape.

The duck was highly esteemed by the Romans for the delicacy and flavour of its flesh, to which even medicinal virtues were ascribed. Plutarch states that Cato preserved his household in health during a plague by dieting its members on roast duck.

1215.—DUCK STEWED WITH GREEN PEAS. (Fr.Canard aux Petits Pois.)

Ingredients.—Remains of cold roast ducks, 1 pint of brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 233), 1 pint of shelled peas, 1 sprig of mint, 1 lump of sugar, lemon-juice.

Method.—Parboil the peas with the mint and sugar, and drain well. Divide the remains of the ducks into neat pieces, put them into the hot brown sauce, add the peas, season to taste, and simmer very gently for ½ an hour. Before serving, add a few drops of lemon-juice.

Time.—From 45 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 1s., exclusive of the ducks. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

The Common Teal (Fr. sarcelle) is the smallest of the Anatidae, or duck family. Its bill is long and furnished with a horny tip the plumage of the male is brown, with feathers of a lustrous metallic green. It visits Britain during the winter and teal shooting is a favourite sport in the fen districts. It is also capture in large numbers by means of decoys. The green-winged teal and the blue-winged teal of North America are handsome birds and the Chinese teal, or Mandarin duck, is especially noted for the bright tints or purple, green, white and dark brown, which distinguish the male bird.

The Blue-bill Duck , known as the Scaup-duck, frequents our coasts in winter, and feeds upon small fish and molluscs. Its flesh is coarse.

1216.—DUCKLING, STUFFED. (Fr.Caneton à la Rouennaise.)

Ingredients.—1 large "Rouen" duckling, 1 chicken liver, ¾ of a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces No. 233), 3 ozs. of breadcrumbs, 1 oz. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs, ½ a shallot finely-chopped, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped thyme, or ½ the quantity of powdered thyme, salt and pepper, nutmeg.

Method.—Blanch the chicken liver and the liver from the duckling, chop them finely, add the herbs, breadcrumbs, butter melted, a pinch of nutmeg, a good seasoning of salt and pepper, and bind with the yolks of eggs. Stuff the duckling, baste it well with hot butter or fat, and roast in a quick oven for about ½ an hour, basting frequently. Then drain off every particle of fat, pour the hot brown sauce into the baking-tin, and continue the cooking until the duckling is tender 15 or 20 minutes should be sufficient, and the duckling must be almost constantly basted during the time with the sauce. Serve on a hot dish, strain over a little of the sauce, garnish with orange quarters, and send the remaining sauce to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. to 6s. 6d., according to size and season. Seasonable from March to August.

The Eider-Duck (Fr. eider) Somateria mollissima, supplies the useful "down" used for making coverlets and other purposes. It is obtained from the nests of the eider-duck, the female plucking from her breast the warm, soft elastic down to line her nest and cover over and keep warm the eggs which she has laid. Each female bird supplies about ½ a lb. of down. The down is imported in the form of balls, weighing 3 to 4 lb. The eggs of a pale green colour are five or six in number and two broods are produced each year. The eider-duck is twice the size of the ordinary duck, about 24-in. in length, and weighs some 7 lb. The plumage of the male is white on the neck and back and black underneath the body, the crown of the head is deep black, and the sides of the head white. It has a green bill and green legs. The female is reddish-brown marked with black. Its wings have two white bands. The king eider-duck, common in Greenland, has a red beak and legs, and the male has a warty protuberance on the base of the upper bill. The chief habitats of the eider-duck are Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and the northern islands of Britain, where it frequents solitary rocky shores. It is also abundant on the coasts of North America.

1217.—DUCK, TO STEW WHOLE. (Fr.Canard en Ragoût.)

Ingredients.—1 duck, good stock, 2 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 2 onions sliced, 4 sage-leaves, 2 or 3 strips of lemon-thyme, salt and pepper, fat for basting.

Method.—Truss the duck, baste it well with hot fat, and cook it quickly either in front of a clear fire or in a hot oven until well-browned. Melt the butter in a stewpan, fry the onions brown, then remove them and sprinkle in the flour, and let it cook slowly until well-browned. Place the duck in a stewpan containing sufficient hot stock to barely cover it, add the fried onions, sage-leaves and lemon-thyme, cover closely, and simmer gently for ½ an hour. When ready, strain and add ¾ of a pint of the stock to the blended butter and flour, stir until boiling, season to taste, and simmer gently for 5 minutes. Serve with a little ​ sauce poured over, and hand the remainder separately. Plainly-boiled green peas should accompany this dish.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 3s. 9d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from March to August.

Duck Snares in the Lincolnshire Fens. —The following method was formerly practised in snaring wild ducks in the fens of Lincolnshire. The favourite haunts of the birds in the lakes to which they resorted were noticed, and a ditch was cut across the entrance to the most sequestered part of a haunt. This ditch of a circular shape narrowed gradually from its entrance to the further end which was usually 2 feet in width. On each side of the ditch the banks of the lake were kept clear of weeds and close herbage, to enable the ducks to rest upon them. Along the ditch poles were driven into the ground, close to the edge on each side, the top of the poles being bent across and secured together. The poles then bent forward at the entrance to the ditch, and formed an arch, the top of which was 10 feet distant from the surface of the water the arch was made to decrease in height as the ditch decreased in width, so that the remote end was not more than 18 in. in height. The poles were placed about 6 ft. from each other, and connected with other poles laid lengthwise across the arch and fastened together. A net was thrown over all, and made fast to a reed fence at the entrance 9 or 10 yards up the ditch, and afterwards strongly pegged to the ground. At the end of the ditch furthest from the entrance was fixed a "tunnel" net, 4 yards in length of a circular form, and kept open by a number of hoops 18 in. in diameter, placed at a small distance from each other to keep it distended. On one side a number of reed fences, called "shootings," were constructed, for the purpose of screening the decoy-man from observation, and in such a manner that the fowl in the decoy might not be alarmed while he was driving those in the pipe. These "shootings," ten in number, were about 4 yards in length and 6 feet in height. From the end of the last shooting a person could not see the lake owing to the bend of the ditch, and there was then no further occasion for shelter. Except for these "shootings" the fowl that remained about the mouth of the ditch would have been alarmed if the person driving the ducks already under the net should have been exposed, and would become so shy as entirely to forsake the place.

1218.—DUCK WITH CARROTS. (Fr.Canard aux Carottes.)

Ingredients.—Remains of cold ducks, 3 or 4 large carrots, ½ a pint of Espagnole sauce (see Sauces, No. 244), 1 oz. of butter, sugar, salt and pepper.

Method.—Boil the carrots in a small quantity of water with a small piece of loaf sugar until tender, then rub them through a fine sieve, season to taste, add the butter, and re-heat. Cut the ducks into pieces convenient for serving, put them into the hot sauce, and let them simmer very gently for ½ an hour. Place the purée of carrots on a hot dish, arrange the pieces of duck neatly on the top, pour the sauce round, and serve.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 9d., exclusive of the duck. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

The Decoy-Man, Dog and Ducks. —The decoy-man on approaching the ditch, described above, took a piece of lighted peat or turf and held it near to his mouth, to prevent the ducks smelling him. A specially trained dog accompanied him. The man then walked very silently about half-way up the shootings, where a small piece of wood was thrust through the reed fence, making an aperture just large enough to enable him to see if any fowls were inside if none were there he walked on to ascertain if the ducks were about the entrance to the ditch. If successful in his search the decoy-man stopped, made a motion to his dog, and gave him a piece of cheese to eat, when the sagacious animal went directly to a hole through the reed fence, and the birds immediately flew off the bank into the water. The dog returned along the bank between the reed fences, and came out to his master at another hole. The master then gave his canine assistant something more to encourage him and the dog repeated his rounds until the birds were attracted by his motions, and followed him into the mouth of the ditch—this operation was called "working" the ducks. The man now retreated further back, "working" the dog at different holes until his prey were sufficiently under the net. The man next commanded the dog to lie down under the fence, and going himself forward to the ditch nearest to the lake, he took off his hat, and waved it between the shootings. All the birds that were under the net could then see him, but not those which were in the lake. The former flew forwards and the man ran to the next shooting, and waved his hat, driving the birds along until they came into the tunnel net, into which they crept. When they were all in, the decoy-man gave the net a twist, thus preventing them from getting back. He then took the net off from the end of the ditch, and taking the ducks out, one by one, dislocated their necks.

1219.—DUCK, ROASTED, WILD. (Fr.Canard Sauvage Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 wild duck, a pint of Espagnole sauce, (see Sauces, No. 244), 1 glass of port wine or claret, the juice of a lemon, watercress, salad-oil, salt and pepper.

Method.—Draw and truss the bird, and roast it in front of a clear fire or in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes, basting frequently. Make the sauce as directed, add to it the wine and lemon-juice, season to taste, and keep hot until required. Serve the duck on a hot dish, garnish with watercress, previously well washed, dried and seasoned with pepper and salad-oil, and send the sauce to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 30 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from August to March.

Ducks's Eggs. —All ducks are good layers if carefully fed and properly tended. Ducks when in good health usually lay at night or early in the morning, and one of the surest signs of indisposition among birds of this class is their irregularity in laying. The tint of the eggs laid depends chiefly upon the colour of the duck—light-coloured ducks laying white eggs, brown ducks eggs of greenish-blue, and dark-coloured birds producing the largest-sized eggs. When placing the eggs of other birds under a duck to be hatched, care should be taken that the eggs match those of the duck as nearly as possible, otherwise the duck may turn out of the nest and destroy the eggs which differ from her own in size and colour.

Cooping and Feeding Ducklings. —Brood ducks should be cooped at some distance from the other birds. Just outside the coop should be placed a wide and flat dish of water, which must be frequently renewed. Barley or meal should be given to the ducklings as their first food. If the weather be wet the tails of the young birds must be clipped to prevent these draggling and causing weakness. The state of the weather and the strength of the ducklings will determine the period of their confinement to the coop. As a general rule a fortnight is sufficient, and the luxury of a swim may sometimes be permitted them at the end of a week. At first the ducklings should not be allowed to stay too long in the water, for they then will become ill, their feathers get rough, and their stomachs disarranged. In the latter case the birds must be closely cooped up for a few days, and bean-meal or oatmeal be mixed with their usual food.

Fattening Ducks. —Some duck keepers allow their ducks to wander about and pick up food for themselves, and they appear to fatten on this precarious living but unless ducks are supplied in addition to chance food with a liberal morning and evening meal of corn or grain their flesh will become flabby and insipid. The simplest way to fatten ducks is to allow them to have as much substantial food as they will eat, especially bruised oats and pea-meal. No cramming is required, as they will eat to the verge of suffocation. They should, however, be well supplied with clean water and allowed to have plenty of exercise.

1220.—FOWL, BOILED. (Fr.Poulet Bouilli.)

Ingredients.—1 fowl, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, ¾ of a pint of stock, 1 onion, 1 carrot, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 6 white peppercorns, salt.

Method.—Truss the fowl for boiling. Have ready a saucepan just large enough to contain the fowl, and as much boiling stock or water as will cover it. Rub the breast of the bird with lemon, wrap it in a buttered paper, put it into the saucepan, bring to the boil, ​ and skim well. Add the sliced vegetables, bouquet-garni, peppercorns and salt if necessary, and cook very gently until the fowl is tender. A young fowl should be ready to serve at the end of 1 hour, but an old bird may need twice that length of time. Meanwhile, melt the butter in a stewpan, add the flour, cook for a few minutes without browning, pour in the stock (use some of the liquor in which the fowl was cooked if none other is at hand), and boil up, stirring all the time. Season to taste, and simmer for 10 minutes, or until the fowl is ready. Remove the trussing string, place on a hot dish, pour over the sauce, which must be thick enough to coat it, garnish with chopped truffle, parsley, or hard-boiled yolk of egg, and serve.

Time.—From 1 to 2 hours, according to age. Average Cost, 3s. 3d. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

The Speckled or Spangled Hamburg. —There are two varieties of this fowl—a favourite with many fanciers—the "golden speckled" and the "silver speckled." The general colour of the former is golden or orange-yellow, each feather having a glossy dark brown or black tip, particularly on the hackles of the cock, the wing-coverts, and on the darker feathers of the breast. The female is yellow or orange-brown, the feathers are margined with black. The ground colour of the "silver speckled" bird is silver-white, with a tinge of straw-yellow, each feather being edged with a glossy black half-moon shaped mark. Both these varieties are very handsome, and the hens are good layers.

1221.—FOWL, BOILED WITH OYSTERS. (Fr.Poulet aux Huîtres.)

Ingredients.—1 fowl, 3 dozen oysters, ¾ of a pint of Béchamel sauce (see Sauces, No. 178) ½ a gill of cream, 1 oz. of butter, the yolks of 2 eggs, 1 blade of mace, salt and pepper.

Method.—Beard the oysters, place 2 dozen of them inside the fowl, and truss for boiling. Put the fowl with the mace and butter into an earthenware fireproof stew-jar with a close-fitting lid. Place the stew-jar in a baking-tin, surround with boiling water, and cook on the stove or in a moderate oven for 2½ hours, or until the fowl is perfectly tender. Blanch the remaining oysters in their liquor, strain the liquor, pour it over the oysters, and put both aside until required. When the fowl is sufficiently cooked, transfer it to a hot dish, strain the liquor and add it to the Béchamel sauce, and, when boiling, stir in the cream and yolks of eggs, previously blended. Continue the stirring and cooking until the sauce thickens, but it must not boil, or the eggs may curdle. Season to taste, pour a little of the sauce over the fowl, add the oysters and their liquor to the remainder, and serve it in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 3 hours. Average Cost, 7s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 6 persons, according to size.

1222.—FOWL, BROILED, WITH MUSHROOM SAUCE. (Fr.Poulet Grillé aux Champignons.)

See "Chicken, Grilled, with Mushroom Sauce," No. 1166.

1223.—FOWL, CURRIED. (Fr.Poulet en Kari.)

See "Fowl, Hashed, Indian Style," No. 1231, also "Indian Cookery."

1224.—FOWL, HASHED. (Fr.Hachis de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—The remains of cold roast fowls, 1 pint of stock, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the fowls into neat joints and, when no stock is at hand, simmer the bones and trimmings for at least 1 hour, adding the usual flavouring vegetables. Melt the butter, fry the flour until lightly-browned, add the stock, and stir until boiling. Season to taste, put in the pieces of fowl, let the stewpan stand for at least ½ an hour, where its contents will keep hot without cooking, then serve with the sauce strained over.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 6d. to 9d., in addition to the fowl. Sufficient, for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable at any time.

Black Spanish. —The real Spanish fowl is characterized by its uniformly black colour, burnished with tints of green, its peculiar white face, and the large development of its comb and wattle—the large high comb of the cock being erect—and blue legs. The Black Spanish fowl is an excellent layer, and its eggs are of a large size. It is, however, a bad sitter, and its eggs should therefore be placed in the nests of other varieties for hatching. It is a good bird for the table, although somewhat small. The handsome carriage and striking contrast of colour in the comb, face and plumage make the Black Spanish fowl an addition to the poultry yard. They are admirably adapted as a town fowl, and their flesh is esteemed.

1225.—FOWL, RAGOÛT OF. (Fr.Ragoût de Volaille.)

Ingredients.—1 fowl, ¼ of a lb. of ham or bacon cut into dice, 2½ ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 1¼ pints of stock, 1 onion finely-chopped, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the fowl into neat joints. Heat the butter in a stewpan, fry the pieces of fowl until nicely-browned, then remove and keep it hot. Fry the onion slightly, then sprinkle in the flour, cook slowly until well-browned, and add the stock. Stir until boiling, season to taste, replace the fowl, put in the ham or bacon, and cover closely. Cook very gently from 1 to 1½ hours, or until the fowl is tender, then serve with the sauce strained over.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 4s. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or more persons, according to size.

365 Luncheon Dishes by BCSM, TT & Others - HTML preview

try this Super Healthy Salad Recipe instead and start improving your meals.

1. Stewed Breast of Lamb

Cut a breast of lamb into small pieces, season, and stew until tender in

enough gravy to cover the meat. Thicken the sauce, flavor with a wine-glass

of wine, pile in the center of a platter and garnish with green peas.

Chop and pound ½ a lb. of chicken and 3 ozs. of ham pass this through a

sieve, add 1 oz. of melted butter, 2 well-beaten eggs, and ½ a pint of cream,

which must be whipped season with pepper and salt. Mix all lightly

together, put into oiled molds and steam fifteen minutes, or if in one large

3. Herring's Roes on Toast

Have rounds of toast buttered and seasoned with salt and pepper, on each

piece place ½ the soft roe of a herring which has been slightly fried and on

the top of this a fried mushroom. Serve very hot.

For a very small omelet beat 2 whole eggs and the yokes of two more until a

full spoonful can be taken up. Add 3 tablespoonfuls of water, ¼ of a

teaspoonful of salt, and a dash of pepper, and when well mixed turn into a

hot omelet pan, in which a tablespoonful of butter has been melted, lift the

edges up carefully and let the uncooked part run under. When all is cooked

Melt 1 oz. of butter, mix with ½ oz. of flour, add ¼ of a pint of milk, stir

and cook well. Then beat in the yolks of two eggs, sprinkle in 3 ozs. of

grated cheese, add the well-beaten whites of three eggs. Mix in lightly and

put in cases. Bake a quarter of an hour.

Cut cold roast veal into thin slices, and dust over them a little mace, nutmeg, cayenne, and salt, and fry them in a little butter. Lay on a dish and

make a gravy by adding 1 tablespoonful of flour, ¼ of a pint of water, 1

teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, 1 tablespoonful of lemon juice, ¼ of a

teaspoonful of lemon peel, 3 tablespoonfuls of cream, and 1 of sherry. Let

boil up once and pour over the meat. Garnish with lemon and parsley.

Slice 3 sweet oranges, after removing the skin and pith, make a dressing

with 3 tablespoonfuls of olive oil, a tablespoonful of lemon juice, and a

pinch of salt. Serve on lettuce leaves.

Scald one quart of oysters in their own liquor. When boiling take out the

oysters and keep them hot. Stir together a tablespoonful of butter and two of

flour, and moisten with cold milk. Add two small cups of boiling water to

the oyster liquor, season with salt and pepper, and stir in the flour mixture,

and let it cook until it thickens like cream.

Make a light biscuit dough and cut out with a thimble. Drop these into the

boiling mixture, cover the saucepan and cook until the dough is done. Put

the oysters on a hot dish and pour biscuit balls and sauce over them.

Chop cold chicken fine season with onion-juice, celery salt, pepper, and

chopped parsley. For 2 cupfuls allow a cupful of cream or rich milk. Heat

this (with a bit of soda stirred in) in a saucepan, and thicken with a tablespoonful of butter rubbed in, one of corn-starch, stirred in when the

cream is scalding. Cook one minute, put in the seasoned chicken, and cook

until smoking hot. Beat two eggs light take the boiling mixture from the

fire and add gradually to these. Pour into a broad dish or agate-iron pan and

set in a cold place until perfectly chilled and stiff. Shape with your hands, or

with a cutter, into the form of cutlets or chops. Dip in egg, then in cracker-

crumbs. Set on the ice an hour or two and fry in deep boiling fat. Send

around white sauce with them.—From "The National Cook Book," by

Marion Harland and Christine Terhune Herrick.

Put 1 pint of milk over the fire in a double boiler with the grated yellow rind

of a lemon and three well-beaten eggs. Stir until the mixture begins to

thicken. Remove from the fire add a cup and a half of sugar, and 1 qt. of

cream. Then add a grated coconut. Stir until the custard is cold, add the

Mix together 2 cupfuls of corn-meal, 1 cupful of flour, 1 teaspoonful of salt,

and 2 of baking powder. Beat together 3 eggs until thick and light. Add 2½

cupfuls of milk and stir into the dry mixture, adding 2 tablespoonfuls of

sugar, and 2 tablespoonfuls of melted butter, and beating well until the

batter is smooth. Grease the pans well, or it will stick. Have the batter a

little more than 2 inches deep in the pans and bake in a hot oven for about

half an hour.—"Table Talk," Phila.

Cut cold roast beef into large slices. Put it into a saucepan with 2 slices of

onion, salt and pepper. Pour over it ½ a pt. of boiling water and add 3

tablespoonfuls of soup stock. Stew gently until cooked.

Boil 1 cup of rice rapidly for half an hour, drain in a colander and stand in

the oven for a few minutes to dry out the rice. Put 2 tablespoonfuls of butter

and a slice of onion into a saucepan. Stir until the onion is a golden brown,

add a tablespoonful of flour. (Take out the slice of onion.) Stir until smooth,

then add a teaspoonful of curry powder, bring to a boil, add salt. Pour over

One qt. of veal or chicken broth, 1 pt. of cream or milk, 1 onion, a little

celery, 1/3 of a cupful of tapioca, 2 cupfuls of cold water, 1 tablespoonful of

butter, a small piece of mace, salt and pepper. Wash and soak the tapioca

over night. Cook it in the broth for an hour. Cook milk, onion, mace and

celery together for 15 minutes, then strain into the tapioca and broth add

the butter, salt and pepper.

15. Haddock Roes and Bacon

Haddock roes are much cheaper than shad roes, and are very nice prepared

in this way. Soak for an hour in water and lemon juice, then parboil in salt

and water for ten minutes. Fry brown in a little lard and butter mixed. Fry

the bacon in a separate pan until brown, remove from the pan and put it in

the oven for a few minutes to crisp it. Put the roes in the center of a hot

platter and garnish the bacon around it.

Wash a teacupful of rice in several waters, put it into a saucepan and just

cover with cold water, and when it boils, add two cupfuls of milk, and boil

until it becomes dry put it into a mold and press it well. When cold serve

with a garnish of preserves around it or with a boiled custard.

Scald 1 pt. of milk and add 1 oz. of butter and let cool when cool add ¼ of

a yeast cake, a teaspoonful of salt and three cups of flour, beat well, cover

and let rise about two hours. When light, add sufficient flour to make a soft

dough work lightly and divide into small balls put each one into a well-

greased muffin ring and let rise again. Then bake on a hot griddle. When

ready to eat tear them open and butter.

18. Minced Veal and Macaroni

Mince ¾ of a lb. of cold veal and 3 ozs. of ham, wet with 1 tablespoonful of

gravy. Season with salt and pepper, a little nutmeg, a quarter of a lb. of

bread crumbs and a well-beaten egg. Butter a mold and line it with some

boiled macaroni. Mix more macaroni with the veal mixture, fill the mold,

put a plate on it and steam for ½ an hour. Turn out carefully, pour a good

19. Baked Beans and Tomato Salad

Stir 3 tablespoonfuls of vinegar very gradually into 6 tablespoonfuls of oil

and a dash of paprika. Add salt, if the beans have not been seasoned. The oil

and vinegar will not unite perfectly. Pour gradually over a pint of cold

baked beans such portions of the dressing as they will absorb, toss together

and arrange on a serving dish. Make a border of sliced tomatoes around the

beans and over these pour the rest of the dressing.—Janet Hill in "Boston

Stew together for 20 minutes ½ a can of tomatoes, 1 tablespoonful of

chopped onion, 1 sprig of parsley, ½ a bay leaf, 4 cloves and enough salt

and pepper to season highly. Rub through a sieve. In a clean saucepan melt

together 2 tablespoonfuls of butter and 5 tablespoonfuls of flour. Add 2

cupfuls of the strained tomato and stir and cook for ten minutes. Take from

the fire and set aside until cold. Flour the hands and carefully mold into

small croquettes. Dip each into slightly beaten egg and roll in fine bread

crumbs. Let stand for 20 minutes, then repeat the dipping and rolling in

crumbs. Fry at once in very hot fat and drain on unglazed paper.—"Table

Cover a platter an inch deep with hot well-boiled rice, to which has been

added 1 tablespoonful of melted butter. On this serve six well-poached eggs.

Parboil a bunch of celery, using only the stalks cut into two inch lengths,

put them into a baking dish. Rub smooth 2 tablespoonfuls of butter and 2 of

flour, then beat in the yolks of 3 eggs stir this into 1 qt. of veal stock and

pour it over the celery, cover with grated bread crumbs and dust the top with

23. Stewed Steak and Oyster Sauce

Wash 1 pt. of small oysters in a little water, drain into a saucepan and put

this water on to heat. As soon as it comes to a boil skim and set back. Put 3

tablespoonfuls of butter into a frying pan and when hot, put in 2 lbs. of

round steak cook ten minutes. Take out the steak and sift 1 tablespoonful of

flour into the butter, stir until browned. Add the oyster liquor and boil 1

minute, season put back the steak, cover and simmer ½ an hour, then add

the oysters and 1 tablespoonful lemon juice. Boil for 1 minute and serve.

Cut ½ a lb. of cold meat into dice wash ¼ of a cupful of barley, chop 2

onions very fine, put all into a saucepan and dredge with flour, season with

salt and pepper. Add a qt. of water and simmer about 2 hours. Pare and slice

5 potatoes, add them to the stew and simmer an hour longer.

Beat 3 eggs separately. To the yolks add ½ a cup of milk, pinch of salt,

pepper and ½ a cup of bread crumbs. Cut into this very carefully the well

beaten whites mix lightly. Put 1 tablespoonful of butter into a frying pan

and as soon as it is hot turn in the mixture. Set it over a good fire, being

careful not to burn. When half done, set the pan in the oven for a few

minutes to set the middle of the omelet. Turn onto a hot platter and serve.

26. Calf's Liver Fried in Crumbs

Wash and parboil slices of liver, then roll each piece, in crumbs, then in

beaten egg, then in crumbs again. Fry in hot lard.

Cut 1 pt. of meat into 1 inch pieces and put them into a greased baking dish.

Beat 2 eggs very light, add to it 1 pint of milk and pour it gradually into 6

tablespoonfuls of flour, beating all the time. Strain, add salt and pepper and

pour it over the meat. Bake an hour and serve at once.

Shell 1 can of shrimps, arrange on lettuce leaves, serve with French

Scald 1 pt. of milk with slice of onion and stalk of celery. Stir into this ¼ of

a cup each of butter and flour creamed together, let cook 15 minutes,

stirring until thickened and then occasionally add a dash of paprika and

strain over 1 pt. of cold cooked corn beef, cut into cubes. Turn into a pudding dish and cover with half a cup of cracker crumbs, mixed with 3

tablespoonfuls of melted butter. Set into the oven to reheat and brown the

crumbs.—Janet M. Hill in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

Take the outside slices left from boiled or braised beef, cut up into small

pieces and pound it thoroughly with a little butter in a mortar add salt,

pepper and a little powdered mace. Mix thoroughly. Put it into jelly glasses,

pour a coating of clarified butter over the top. Cover with paper until

One gill of rice, boiled soft when cold, rub it with a spoon. Moisten with

water a gill of rice flour, and mix it with the rubbed rice. Beat 1 egg, very

light, and stir in. Bake on a shallow tin plate, split and butter while hot.

(One of my secret favorite healthy meals).

Take a loaf of bread, cut off the crusts, dig out the center, making a box of

it, brush it all over with melted butter and put into the oven to brown. Fill

with creamed oysters, cover the top with fried bread crumbs, put into the

oven for a minute and serve. Garnish with parsley.

2. Broiled Sweetbreads

For these use veal sweetbreads. Wash and parboil them and cut in half

lengthwise. When cold, season with salt and pepper, and pour over them a

little melted butter. Broil over a clear fire about 5 minutes. Serve with

melted butter and chopped parsley poured over them.

Take 1 lb. of liver, cover it with boiling water and let it stand for five

minutes, then cut it into dice. Into a frying pan put 3 slices of fat bacon and

fry. When the fat is fried out add the liver and 4 onions, sliced thin cook

until done. Add a tablespoonful of flour, salt, and pepper. Mix well and

4. Broiled Beef and Mushroom Sauce

Stew ½ a can of mushrooms in 1 oz. of butter, salt, and cayenne pepper.

Have ready mashed potatoes. Put them in a mound in the center of a hot

dish make a hole in the center, pour in the mushrooms, lay against the

outside of the mound slices of cold roast beef.

Melt 1 tablespoonful of butter cook in this 1 tablespoonful of flour, ¼ of a

tablespoonful each of salt and pepper, then add gradually ½ a cup of

kornlet. When the mixture boils, remove from the fire and stir in the yolks

of three eggs beaten until thick, then fold in the whites of the eggs beaten

dry. Turn into an omelet pan, in which two tablespoonfuls of butter have

been melted. Spread evenly in the pan and let cook until "set" on the bottom, then put into the oven. When a knife cut down into the omelet

comes out clean, score across the top at right angles to the handle of the

pan. Fold and turn onto a heated dish.—Janet M. Hill, in "Boston Cooking

Have ½ a lb. of calf's liver cut in thin slices, parboil for 5 minutes, wipe

each piece dry, lay a thin slice of bacon on each slice of liver, season with

salt and pepper, roll up and fasten with a wooden toothpick, dredge with

flour and fry until done in bacon fat or drippings. When done take out the

rolls and thicken the gravy with a little brown flour. If there is not gravy

enough add a little boiling water. A teaspoonful of mushroom ketchup

added to the gravy is an improvement or a squeeze of onion juice.

Shell 1 qt. of chestnuts and cover with boiling water leave them for fifteen

minutes, then rub off the brown skins. Put them into a saucepan, cover them

with soup stock and let them boil ½ an hour when done, drain. Save the

stock. Into a frying pan put 1 tablespoonful of butter and when melted add 1

of flour cook until browned, then add the stock and stir until it boils add

salt and pepper to taste. Lay the chestnuts in a box made of fried bread and

To make the box, take a loaf of bread, cut off the crust and leave the sides as

smooth as possible. Cut out the center, leaving a box shaped piece. Fry this

Clean and cut the hare or rabbit as for fricassee. Simmer slowly in just

enough water to cover, add a thickening of 1 tablespoonful each of butter

and flour, season with salt, pepper, and 1 tablespoonful of curry powder.

9. Scrambled Eggs with Shad Roes

When you have shad for dinner scald the roes ten minutes in boiling water

(salted), drain, throw into cold water, leave them there three minutes, wipe

dry, and set in a cold place until you wish to use them. Cut them across into

pieces an inch or more wide, roll them in flour, and fry to a fine brown.

Scramble a dish of eggs, pile the roes in the center of a heated platter, and

dispose the eggs in a sort of hedge all around them.—From "The National

Cook Book," by Marion Harland and Christine Terhune Herrick.

10. Chicken in Celery Sauce

Take the roots of a bunch of celery, clean and cut it into small pieces, put

them into a saucepan and cover with cold water, about a pint, stew slowly

and when tender put through a vegetable press. Into a saucepan put 1

tablespoonful each of flour and butter. When melted and rubbed smooth add

½ a cup of milk and the celery. Stir well and when it boils add salt and

pepper. Have 1 pt. of cold chicken cut into dice, and add them to the boiling

sauce when all is hot. Serve with toast points.

Put 3½ cupfuls of milk in a double boiler and as soon as it comes to a boil

stir in two tablespoonfuls of corn-starch that has been mixed with ½ a

cupful of cold milk. Cook for ten minutes. Beat together 3 eggs and a cup

and a half of sugar. Pour the cooked corn-starch and milk on this, stirring all

the time. Put back again on the fire, and add 1 tablespoonful of gelatin

which has been dissolved in 4 tablespoonfuls of cold water. Cook three

minutes. Set away to cool. When cold add 1 pt. of cream and 1

tablespoonful of vanilla and freeze. When the mixture has been freezing for

ten minutes, take off the cover and add 2 cupfuls of chopped figs. Cover

Rub 4 ozs. of butter with a qt. of wheat flour, add a little salt. Make it into a

paste with ½ a pt. of milk. Knead it well: roll it as thin as paper. Cut it out

with a tumbler, and bake brown.

Put ¼ of a lb. of bacon into a frying pan with 1 onion sliced fry a light

brown. Into a saucepan put a layer of potatoes, a layer of fish, then a few

slices of the onion and bacon, then season. Continue until all has been used.

Add 1 qt. of water, cover and let simmer 20 minutes without stirring. In a

double boiler put 1 pt. of milk and break into it 6 water crackers let it stand

a few minutes then add to the chowder. Let it boil up once and serve. Use 3

lbs. of chopped fish and 3 potatoes for this.

14. Cold Duck and Chestnut-Border

Arrange slices of cold duck on a platter. Shell and blanch 1 qt. of chestnuts,

then boil until soft, drain and put them through a colander. Add a

tablespoonful of butter, salt and pepper to taste, arrange around the cold

duck. Garnish with olives or bits of red currant jelly.

15. Oysters with Madeira Sauce

Into a saucepan put 2 tablespoonfuls of butter and 1 of flour, ½ a cup of

milk, a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of cayenne. Stir until smooth, then

add 25 oysters that have been washed and drained. When cooked take from

the stove and add 2 tablespoonfuls of Madeira wine.

Season well, pieces of cold roast chicken. Make a fritter batter, stir the

pieces in. Drop by spoonfuls into boiling fat. Lemon juice added to the

seasoning is an improvement.

One pt. of cold boiled rice, mixed with a cup of cold milk, 1 egg, about ½ a

pt. of flour just sufficient to hold it together. Put into a deep pan and bake ½

18. Cheese and Tomato Rarebit

Put a tablespoonful of butter in the blazer and let the melted butter run over

the bottom. Then add 2 cups of cheese grated or cut into dice. Stir until

melted, then add the yolks of 2 eggs, beaten and diluted with ½ a cup of

tomato purée, ¼ of a teaspoonful each of soda, salt, and paprika. Stir

constantly until the mixture is smooth, then serve on bread toasted upon but

one side.—Janet M. Hill in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

Cook 3 tablespoonfuls of flour in four of butter add ½ a cup of milk, season

with salt and pepper. Mix this with 1 cupful of cooked onions put through a

sieve add three eggs beaten very light. Turn into a baking dish and stand in

a pan of hot water. Bake ½ an hour.

Joint a fowl as for fricassee put it on the fire in enough cold water to cover

it bring it to a boil slowly, and cook until tender. Unless the chicken is quite

young this should require from 2 to 3 hours. When it has been simmering

about an hour put in a sliced onion, 2 stalks of celery, 3 sprigs of parsley,

and a teaspoonful of paprika. When the chicken is done, arrange it in a dish,

add to the gravy salt to taste and the juice of ½ a lemon and pour it over the

chicken.—From "The National Cook Book," by Marion Harland and

Christine Terhune Herrick.

Soak 1 qt. of white soup beans over night. In the morning, drain, cover with

fresh cold water, bring to a boil, drain, and cover with 1 qt. boiling water

boil slowly for about an hour. When the beans are tender press through a

sieve then add 1 tablespoonful of vinegar, 2 of molasses, 2 of butter, salt

and cayenne to taste, let the mixture get cold, when form into croquettes,

dip in egg and in bread crumbs and fry in boiling fat.

Beat the yolks of 2 eggs and add them to 2 cups of mashed potatoes, then

add 1 tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a teaspoonful of onion juice, 2

tablespoonfuls of cream or milk, 1 tablespoonful of butter mix well, form

into small balls, and egg and bread crumb them. Fry in deep fat.

Take off the skin from a bologna sausage. Rub to a paste. Spread slices of

rye bread with butter and if liked, a little French mustard, then a layer of the

bologna. Put two slices together.

Cut cold boiled ham into rather thick slices, cover with a mixture of pepper,

olive oil, and mustard dip in egg, then in cracker crumbs and set in a cold

place. Fry slices of fat bacon or pork crisp, take them out and put the

breaded ham into the hissing fat. Turn when the lower side is brown and

cook the upper. Garnish with hard-boiled eggs cut in slices, serving a slice

upon each portion of ham.—From "The National Cook Book," by Marion

Harland and Christine Terhune Herrick.

Peel and slice 8 large potatoes. Into a deep saucepan put 3 slices of salt pork

cut into small pieces, fry them, and then add the potatoes with salt, pepper,

and 1 large peeled tomato, sliced, cover with water and let cook until the

Freshen 1 pt. of salt codfish, add to it 1 qt. chopped, boiled potatoes, mix

well, cut three slices of salt pork in very small pieces and fry brown remove half the pork and add the fish and potatoes to the remainder let it

stand and steam five minutes without stirring be careful not to let it burn

then add 1/3 cup of milk, and stir well. Put the remainder of the pork around

the edge of the pan, and a little butter over it simmer slowly for ½ an hour,

until a brown crust is formed, then turn on a platter and serve.

27. Sugared Sweet Potatoes

Boil 6 sweet potatoes, peel them, and let them get cold, then cut in two

lengthwise lay them with the rounded side down in a baking dish, put a bit

of butter and salt and pepper on each piece. Sprinkle granulated sugar over

all and put in a quick oven to brown for ½ an hour.

Take a dozen milk crackers, break them up in small pieces and put into a

pudding dish. Heat 1 qt. of milk, until boiling, sweeten and flavor to taste

with vanilla, lemon or orange, and stir into it three well-beaten eggs. Take

the milk from the fire at once and pour over the broken crackers. When cool

stand on the ice and serve icy cold.

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without getting fat (and sick).

Boil 3 eggs, cut in slices crosswise and line the bottom and sides of a mold.

Place in the mold alternate layers of thin slices of cold veal and ham. Cover

with stock well boiled down. Set into the oven for ½ an hour when cold

turn out of mold and garnish with parsley.

Cut an onion into a saucepan, add a cup of water, a little mace and parsley.

When thoroughly boiled, add 1 cup of cream or milk, 1 small spoonful of

butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour, and strain all through a sieve. Take cold

halibut, remove the bones and skin, and flake it, butter a dish and put in a

layer of fish then one of the dressing, alternately, until the dish is full. Put

grated bread crumbs on top and bake half an hour.

Chop lean pork somewhat coarsely butter a pudding dish and line with

good paste put in the pork interspersed with minced onion and hard boiled

eggs, cut into bits and sprinkle with pepper, salt, and powdered sage. Now

and then dust with flour and drop in a bit of butter. When all the meat is in,

dredge with flour and stick small pieces of butter quite thickly all over it.

Cover with puff paste, cut a slit in the middle of the crust and bake ½ an

hour for each lb. of meat. When it begins to brown, wash the crust with the

white of an egg. It will give a fine gloss to it.—From "The National Cook

Book," by Marion Harland and Christine Terhune Herrick.

Cut stale bread into finger-shaped pieces, mix ¾ of a cup of coffee infusion,

2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, ¼ of a teaspoonful of salt, 1 egg slightly beaten,

and ¼ of a cup of cream. Dip the pieces of bread into the liquid and "egg

and bread crumb," and fry in deep fat. Drain on soft paper at the oven door.

Serve at once, with sauce.—Janet M. Hill, in "Boston Cooking School

Coffee Sauce.—Scald 1½ cups of milk, half a cup of ground coffee, and let

stand 20 minutes. Strain and add the infusion slowly to 1/3 of a cup of

sugar, mixed with ¾ of a tablespoonful of arrowroot and a few grains of

salt. Cook 5 minutes. Serve hot.—"Boston Cooking School Magazine."

Wash the fish thoroughly, soak ½ an hour in cold water, skin side up then

cover with boiling water and let stand 5 minutes. Drain carefully, then

remove the skin and bone. Put the flaked fish into a buttered serving dish

and pour over it white sauce equal in quantity to that of the fish cover with

buttered crumbs and bake in a hot oven long enough to brown the crumbs.

—Janet M. Hill, in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

6. Roast Pigeons with Bread Sauce

Stuff the pigeons with ordinary force meat. Roast and serve around a

pyramid of baked tomatoes, and serve with the following sauce.

Sauce.—Simmer three small onions, sliced, in ½ a pint of milk for an hour.

Take out the onions, put in grated bread, a small lump of butter, pepper, salt,

a dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, 1 chili and 1 anchovy (washed and

boned) shredded fine. Make it the consistency of bread sauce.

Boil and mash fine 6 potatoes, add a cupful of milk, salt and pepper to taste,

a little butter, and the whites of 4 eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Have a plain

mold well buttered and sprinkle the bottom and sides with bread crumbs.

Line the mold with the potatoes and let stand for a few minutes. Put a slice

of onion and 1 pt. of cream or milk to boil. Mix two tablespoonfuls of flour

with a little cream or milk, and stir into the boiling cream. Season well with

salt and pepper and cook eight minutes. Let the oysters come to a boil in

their own liquor, skim them out and add to the cream, take out the piece of

onion. Season and turn carefully into the mold. Cover with mashed potato,

being careful not to add too much at once. Bake ½ an hour. Take from the

oven about ten minutes before dishing and let it cool a little. Then place a

large dish over the mold and turn out carefully. Caution should be taken that

every part of the mold has a thick coating of the potato, and when the

covering is put on, no opening is left for the sauce to escape.

Slice eight boiled potatoes, and put a layer of them in a buttered baking

dish make a white sauce with 1 tablespoonful each of butter and flour and a

cup of milk season with cayenne and salt cover the layer of potatoes with a

layer of sauce, and so continue until the dish is full. Sprinkle the top with

bread crumbs and grated cheese bake about 20 minutes.

Cut some mutton kidneys, open down the center, do not separate them peel,

and pass a skewer across them to keep them open, season and dip them in

melted butter, broil over a clear fire, doing the cut side first remove the

skewers have ready a little butter mixed with some chopped parsley, salt,

pepper and a little lemon juice and a dash of nutmeg put a small piece of

this butter in the center of each kidney and serve hot.

10. Beefsteak and Kidney Pudding

Cut 2 lbs. of round steak into small pieces and slice one beef kidney. Line a

deep dish with suet crust, leaving a small piece of crust to overlap the edge,

then cover the bottom with a portion of the steak and kidney, season with

salt and pepper, then add more steak and kidney, season again. Put in

sufficient stock or water to come to within 2 inches of the top of the dish.

Moisten the edges of the crust with cold water, cover the pudding over,

press the two crusts together that the gravy may not escape and turn up the

overhanging paste. Steam for 3 or 4 hours.

Cut nice pieces of cold pork and put them into a deep pan. (If there are

bones put them on to simmer and make a gravy, if not, use stock.) Parboil

some potatoes and onions, cut them into rather large pieces and mix them in

well with the meat, season with pepper, salt and a little sage, and add the

gravy. Put a layer of potatoes on the top and brown in the oven.

Mince the boiled lobster meat, add to it 6 drops anchovy sauce, lemon juice

and cayenne to taste and 4 tablespoonfuls of béchamel sauce. Line patty

pans with light paste. Stir the lobster mixture over the fire for 5 minutes and

Béchamel Sauce.—One small bunch of parsley, 2 cloves, small bunch of

herbs, salt to taste, 1 cup white stock and 1 cup of milk, 1 tablespoonful of

Chop fine pieces of cold fowl, and brown 2 onions in 2 ozs. butter, add 1

teaspoonful flour, 1 dessertspoonful curry powder, 1 tablespoonful lemon

juice, ½ pint gravy, season with salt and pepper. Stew 20 minutes.

Mince very fine 1 lb. of beef, 1 onion, 2 ozs. suet add a little flour, pepper

and salt. Stew half an hour, stirring frequently.

15. Crescent Croquettes

Roll some light pie crust very thin and cut in half moons. Chop beef or

mutton very fine, add a little summer savory, parsley, salt and pepper. Lay

some of this between two layers of paste. Egg and bread crumb them and

fry in boiling fat for ten minutes.

16. German Way of Cooking Chickens

Stuff the chickens with a force meat made of French rolls, a little butter,

egg, finely-chopped onion, parsley, thyme, and grated lemon peel then lard

and bread crumb them, putting a piece of fat over the breasts that they may

not become too brown. Place them in a stewpan with 1 oz. of butter, leave

uncovered for a short time, then cover and bake about 1½ hours. Half an

hour before serving add a small cup of cream or milk and baste thoroughly

17. Breast of Lamb Broiled

Heat and grease a gridiron, broil a breast of lamb first on one side, then on

the other. Rub over with butter, pepper and salt. Serve on a hot dish with

Simmer 2 finely minced onions for ¾ of an hour in a qt. of stock. Rub

through a colander and put back again on the stove. Stir 2 tablespoonfuls

each of flour and butter together until smooth add to the soup. In another

saucepan heat a cup of milk and a pinch of soda, add this to the stock, beat

in the white of an egg, season with salt and pepper, and minced parsley.

19. Saratoga Corn Cake

Sift together 2 cups of pastry flour, 1½ cups of granulated yellow corn-

meal, ½ a cup of sugar, ½ a teaspoonful of salt, and 1 teaspoonful of soda.

Beat 2 eggs without separating, add 2 cups of thick sour cream or milk, and

three tablespoonfuls of melted butter, and stir into the dry mixture. Beat

thoroughly and bake in a large shallow pan for 25 minutes.—Janet M. Hill,

in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

(An old New England seashore dish)

Chop the clams if large, saving the liquor that runs from them. Heat, strain,

and season this and cook the chopped clams for 10 minutes in it. Have a

thick top crust of good pastry, but none at the bottom of the bake dish. Fill

with alternate layers of the minced clams, season with salt, pepper, a few

drops of onion juice, some bits of butter and a few teaspoonfuls of strained

tomato sauce, and thin slices of boiled potatoes. Dredge each layer of clams

with flour. Lastly, pour in a cupful of clam juice, put on the crust and bake

half an hour in a quick oven.—From "The National Cook Book," by Marion

Harland and Christine Terhune Herrick.

Boil ½ a pig's head until the meat comes from the bone, chop it fine and add

salt and pepper and a slice of onion minced very fine. Stir all well together

and turn into a mold. Serve cold.

Whip ½ a pint of cream stiff, season it highly with cayenne and salt. Cut up

½ a boiled lobster and mix with the cream. Put into cases. Garnish with

parsley and some of the lobster coral.

Put ½ a pound of boiled potatoes through a sieve, mix with them 2 ozs. of

grated ham, a little butter, a well-beaten egg, cayenne and salt to taste if not

moist enough, add a little cream, form into small balls, egg and bread crumb

them and fry a golden brown in deep fat.

Beat four eggs very light, add to them a pint of cream, season with salt and

pepper. Butter small molds and pour in the mixture, stand the molds in a

pan with about 2 inches of water, steam 20 minutes. Turn them out and pour

a rich brown gravy around them. Garnish with chopped olives and red

25. English Bread Pudding

Grease small cups and fill 2/3 full with bread crumbs and a little chopped

candied fruit beat 2 eggs without separating and 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar

and 1½ cups of milk. Pour this carefully over the crumbs and stand the cups

in a pan of boiling water and bake in a moderate oven 15 minutes. Turn out

and serve with a vanilla or wine sauce.

26. Tomato Jelly Salad

Cook a can of tomatoes with ½ an onion, a stalk of celery, a bay leaf and

pepper and salt. Dissolve ¾ of a box of gelatin in ½ a cup of cold water.

Add the gelatin to the tomato and strain into small round molds serve each

one on a lettuce leaf with a circle of mayonnaise dressing around.

27. Clams Sauteed and Creamed

Chop fine two strings of soft shell clams after washing them. Melt one large

tablespoonful of butter in a frying pan, add the clams and stir frequently

until they are nicely browned. Keep well broken with a spoon. When

browned dredge over them 1 heaping tablespoonful of butter and stir again

until it is absorbed and browned, then add gradually 1 cupful of milk,

stirring until it is smooth and thick. Season well with salt and pepper, simmer for 5 minutes and serve on toast.—"Table Talk," Phila.

28. Cheese Fondue No. 1

Beat 5 eggs without separating. When light, add 1 cupful of grated Swiss or

mild American cheese, ½ a teaspoonful of salt, ¼ of a teaspoonful of white

pepper, and three tablespoonfuls of butter cut into bits. Cook in a double

boiler until the cheese has melted and the mixture is smooth and as thick as

custard. Pour over hot buttered toast and send at once to the table.—"Table

Trim and cut like cutlets some slices of beef season. Fry on both sides until

done sprinkle over them chopped parsley, place on a dish and serve with a

For this use a recipe for short cake adding more milk to make it into a thick

batter. Turn into a shallow, oblong pan and over the top press lightly into the

mixture a close layer of partly cooked prunes. Sprinkle thickly with

granulated sugar and bake in a quick oven. Serve hot.—From "Table Talk,"

Chop cold beef very fine, and season it with salt and pepper, then add some

onion chopped fine and fried previously, also some rice boiled very dry.

Mix all well together and make into small rounds, flour them and fry until

brown. Serve with a hot gravy poured over them.

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1. Potato and Meat Turnovers

Mix with mashed potatoes a few spoonfuls of flour, a little salt and baking

powder in the proportion of half a teaspoonful to ½ a cupful of flour. Use

only sufficient flour to roll out in a ½ inch sheet. Cut into circles the size of

a saucer, lay on each a spoonful of seasoned meat, fold over and pinch the

edges together. Lay on a greased pan, brush each with milk and bake brown

in a hot oven.—From "Table Talk," Phila.

2. Browned Potato Puree

Put 3 tablespoonfuls of good dripping into your soup-kettle and fry in it 1

dozen potatoes which have been pared, quartered, and laid in cold water for

an hour. With them should go into the boiling fat a large, sliced onion. Cook

fast but do not let them scorch. When they are browned add two quarts of

boiling water, cover the pot, and simmer until the potatoes are soft and

broken. Rub through a colander back into the kettle and stir in a great

spoonful of butter rolled in browned flour, a tablespoonful of browned

parsley, salt and pepper to taste. In another saucepan make a sugarless

custard of a cup of boiling milk and 2 well-beaten eggs take from the fire

and beat fast for 1 minute, put into a heated tureen, beat in the potato and

serve.—From "The National Cook Book," by Marion Harland and Christine

Mince fine the meat of a boiled lobster, mix the coral with it, and the green

fat, 2 tablespoonfuls of vinegar, ¼ of a lb. of butter and a saltspoon each of

cayenne and made mustard. Let all get very hot. Serve on a hot dish with

lettuce leaves and hard boiled egg.

Take small tomatoes, scald and peel them, then cut a slice from the stem

end. Place them, the cut side down, on slices of buttered bread, put them in

a buttered baking tin, season with salt and pepper, bake ½ an hour. Serve

Soak 1 cup of stale bread crumbs in 1 cup of milk for 15 minutes. Into a

saucepan put 1 teaspoonful of butter and ½ cup cream cheese, melt and add

the crumbs, also a well-beaten egg, ½ teaspoonful salt and a pinch of

cayenne. Cook for 3 minutes and pour it on toasted crackers.

6. Shad Roe Croquettes

Boil the roe for 15 minutes in salted water then drain and mash. Mix 4

tablespoonfuls each of butter and corn-starch and stir into a pint of boiling

milk. Add to this the roe and 1 teaspoonful of salt, the juice of a lemon,

cayenne and a grating of nutmeg. Boil up once and let get cold. Shape into

Take pieces of cold chicken. Make a sauce with 1 onion, sliced, 6 walnuts,

chopped, ½ cup stock, cayenne and salt. Cook the chicken in this and when

hot take it out and thicken the gravy with a little flour.

Take 1 cup of stewed and strained squash, add to it 2 tablespoonfuls of

sugar and 1 teaspoonful of salt melt 1 tablespoonful of butter in 1½ cups of

scalded milk, and when lukewarm, add ½ cup yeast, and flour enough to

knead knead ¼ hour, let rise until light knead again and put it into greased

tins, let rise again and bake.

Clean, wash and wipe dry, season with salt, roll in flour and fry in hot fat.

Melt 1 tablespoonful of butter, add a squeeze of lemon juice and a little

chopped parsley, pour this over the fish and serve.

Whip ¼ of a pt. of cream. Dissolve 1 good tablespoonful of gelatin in ½ a

pt. of milk. Warm the milk in which the gelatin is dissolved, add 2 ozs. of

grated Parmesan cheese. Stir on the fire for a few moments, take it off,

season with pepper and salt, add the whipped cream, pour into small molds

and let it set. When cold turn out and garnish with aspic cut into dice.

Beat 2 eggs very light, add 1 cup sour milk and 1 cup of sweet milk stir

into this 2 cups corn-meal and ½ cup of flour, 1 tablespoonful of sugar and

1 teaspoonful each of salt and soda. Mix, and heat thoroughly, and then pour

it into the spider pour over it 1 cup of sweet milk, but do not stir it into the

batter. Bake in a hot oven ½ an hour. Slip it carefully onto a platter and

Make a paste with ½ a lb. of flour, ¼ of a lb. of lard, the yolk of 1 egg, ½ a

teaspoonful of lemon juice, and ½ a teaspoonful of baking powder. Line

some patty pans with this paste and fill with the following mixture. Mince 2

ozs. of chicken and 6 mushrooms, and an anchovy, season with cayenne,

salt, and a little lemon peel. Mix enough white sauce with this, put into the

patty pans, cover with paste, brush them over with an egg, bake in a hot

Put the required number of small, soft-shell clams into a saucepan, and

bring to a boil, in their own liquor. Cut cold boiled potatoes into small

cubes. Line a pudding-dish with pie-crust around the sides, and put a tea-

cup in the center of the dish to support the top crust when it is added. Put a

layer of clams, then the potatoes, salt and pepper, and bits of butter dredge

with flour when all the clams and potatoes are used. Add the liquor and a

little water if necessary. Put on the top crust, cutting several slits in it for the

steam to escape. Bake 45 minutes.

14. Broiled Live Lobster

Kill the lobster by inserting a sharp knife in its back between the body and

tail shells cutting the spinal cord. Split the shell the entire length of the

back, remove the stomach and intestinal canal, crack the large claws and lay

the fish as flat as possible. Brush the meat with melted butter, season with

salt and pepper, place in a broiler, and with the flesh side down, cover and

broil slowly until a delicate brown, about 20 minutes. Turn the broiler and

broil 10 minutes longer. Serve hot, with a sauce of melted butter.

One cup of bread-crumbs very fine and dry, 2 scant cups of fresh milk, ½ a

lb. of grated cheese, 3 eggs beaten very light, a small spoonful of melted

butter, pepper and salt, a pinch of soda dissolved in hot water and stirred

into the milk. Soak the crumbs in the milk, beat into these the eggs, and

butter a baking dish. Pour the fondu into it, then sprinkle crumbs over the

top. Bake in rather a quick oven until a delicate brown. Serve at once, as it

Fill a buttered custard cup lightly with stale bread-crumbs (center of the

loaf), and cooked mutton (chicken is more dainty), finely chopped. Beat an

egg, add ½ a cup of milk, and a few grains of salt pour the mixture over the

bread and meat. Bake in a pan of hot water, or cook on the top of the stove,

until the egg is lightly set. Do not allow the water about the egg to boil.—

Janet M. Hill, in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

Cut a grape-fruit in half, and scoop out the pulp in as large pieces as possible, and lay them on lettuce leaves. Make a dressing with two

tablespoonfuls of sherry wine, and sugar to taste.

18. Asparagus in Rolls

Cut off the tips of a well-boiled bunch of asparagus, mix with a thick cream

sauce, season well, and fill with this the crusts of baker's rolls.

Crack and parboil ½ a lb. of English walnuts, rub off the brown skin and

when cold serve on lettuce leaves, with a French dressing.

Boil 2 cups of oatmeal as for porridge, add ½ teaspoonful salt, and when

cool, ½ cup molasses, and ½ a yeast cake stir in enough wheat flour to

make as stiff as it can be stirred with a spoon put it into 2 well-greased tin

pans and let stand in a warm place until very light bake about an hour and a

Do not cut until the next day.

Take 3 eggs, 1 kidney, 2½ ozs. of butter skin the kidney and cut it very

small, fry it in some of the butter until cooked. Mix 3 eggs, beating yolks

and whites separately, add salt and cayenne, and the kidney, melt the butter

in the pan and fry the omelet until done, turn and serve.

Melt in a saucepan ½ a lb. of dairy cheese, add ¼ of a cupful of cream or

milk, a small piece of butter, 1 beaten egg, 1 teaspoonful Worcestershire

sauce, a tablespoonful finely chopped cucumber pickle season highly with

salt and cayenne. Melt the cheese over hot water and stir all the ingredients

until thick and smooth. Serve at once on buttered toast.

23. Veal and Ham Pates

Mince cold cooked veal and ham in the proportion of 2/3 veal and 1/3 ham.

A few mushrooms are a pleasing addition. To each cup of the mixture allow

a tablespoonful of fine crumbs season highly with salt, a dash of cayenne, a

little lemon juice, and a teaspoonful of ketchup. Wet up with stock, or butter

and water, and heat in a vessel set in another of hot water, to a smoking boil.

Take from the fire, stir in a beaten egg and a glass of sherry, and fill in shells

of pastry that have been baked empty.

The shells should be hot when the mince goes in. Set in the oven for 2 or 3

minutes, but the mixture must not cook.—From "The National Cook Book,"

by Marion Harland and Christine Terhune Herrick.

Boil a bunch of asparagus in rapid boiling salted water. When cooked put on

a dish to cool. Cut off the tender part and place four or five stalks on a large

lettuce leaf. Put a teaspoonful of thick mayonnaise dressing on the end of

25. Chicken Pie (Concord Style)

Roll puff paste ¼ of an inch thick, cut in diamond shaped pieces, chill

thoroughly, and bake about 15 minutes. Put a stewed or fricasseed chicken

into a serving dish, reheat the pastry and arrange on top of the chicken.—

Janet M. Hill in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

Put 4 ozs. of fine bread crumbs, 4 ozs. of grated Parmesan cheese, 2 ozs. of

butter and a little salt and cayenne into a mortar, and pound them

thoroughly. Bind the mixture together with a well-beaten egg and form into

small balls, egg and bread crumb them and fry a light brown. Drain them

27. French Bean Omelet

Cut up 2 tablespoonfuls of boiled French beans and stir them into 4 well-

beaten eggs add 2 tablespoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese, salt and

pepper to taste. Mix well, put into an omelet pan with 2 ozs. of butter, and

fry until done. Serve very hot.

Remove the meat from a 3 lbs. boiled lobster and cut into 2 inch pieces

season with salt and a little cayenne, and set away where it is cold. Heat hot

in a frying pan, 3 tablespoonfuls of butter, and then add 2 of flour and 1

small teaspoonful of curry powder. Stir this until browned and then add

gradually 1½ cupfuls of stock and season to taste. Add the lobster, cook 6

minutes, then pour over toast arranged on a warm dish. Garnish with

parsley. If onion is liked a few slices may be fried with the butter before the

flour and curry powder are added.

29. Champignons en Caisse

Peel and cut small 12 large mushrooms, put them into well buttered china

cases. Add pepper, salt and chopped parsley.

30. Potato and Meat Puffs

Take 1 cup cold meat, chopped fine, and season with salt and pepper. Make

a paste with 1 cup of mashed potato and 1 egg, roll out with a little flour, cut

it round with a saucer, put the meat on 1 half, fold it over like a puff, pinch

the edges together in scallops, fry a light brown.

Quinoa is a high-protein, gluten-free Superfood.

Take equal parts of cold fish (free from skin and bone) boiled rice and some

hard boiled eggs. Chop the fish and eggs mix with the rice, add bits of

butter, about a tablespoonful in all, season with salt and pepper, and a sprinkle of curry powder. Warm in a saucepan and serve as hot as possible.

2. Veal Eggs in a Nest a la Turin

Mince cold veal, season to taste, and wet slightly with a good gravy. To

each cupful allow a tablespoonful of finely minced blanched almonds, or

the same quantity of chopped mushrooms. Bind the mixture with a beaten

egg, stir over the fire one minute and set aside to cool.

Flour your hands and form into balls the size and shape of an egg let them

get cold, roll in egg and cracker-dust and fry in deep fat. Arrange upon a

platter a border of spaghetti, boiled tender in salted water and drained.

Butter plentifully and pour carefully over it a cupful of strained tomato

sauce. Heap the eggs in the center.—From "The National Cook Book," by

Marion Harland and Christine Terhune Herrick.

3. Baked Cheese and Rice

Make a white sauce with one heaping tablespoonful each of flour and butter,

1/3 of a teaspoonful of white pepper and 1 cupful and a half of milk. In a

deep baking dish place alternate layers of rice, sauce, and grated cheese,

having the last layer cheese. Place in a hot oven until brown.—From "Table

Wash and wipe the fish dry. Lay it in a saucepan with half an onion cut in

thin slices, parsley, two cloves, 1 blade of mace, two bay leaves, thyme, salt

and pepper, 1 pint of meat stock, a glass of claret or port wine. Simmer

gently for ½ an hour. Take out the fish, thicken the gravy with a little flour

and butter rubbed together. Stir for five minutes. Pour over the fish and

5. Squash Griddle Cakes

Mix 1 pt. of flour, 1 teaspoonful of baking powder, 1 teaspoonful of salt,

and 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar together sift them add 2 well-beaten eggs, a

pint of milk, and 2 cupfuls of boiled squash that has been strained. Beat

until light. Bake on the griddle or add a little more flour and bake in muffin

Take a fowl, cut it up in joints, and put it in a saucepan with enough water

to cover it, a pinch of mace, a teaspoonful of salt and a little pepper. Let it

stew until the meat will leave the bones. Then take the meat out, remove the

bones and arrange the meat nicely in a mold. Season the liquor with a little

more salt and pepper and dissolve in it ¼ of an ounce of gelatin. Pour over

the chicken. The mold may be lined with slices of hard boiled egg.

7. Jambalayah (A Creole Dish)

Take 1 large cupful of cold meat, 1 of boiled rice and 1 of stewed tomatoes.

Let these cook well, season highly fill a baking dish, cover with crumbs

and bits of butter, and brown in the oven.

8. Lobster (Southern Way)

Prepare as for salad, only cutting in larger pieces. One tablespoonful of

flour, one of butter rubbed together, the yolk of an egg, one teaspoonful of

curry powder, salt and pepper and a cupful of cream. Mix and pour over the

lobster. To be either baked or stewed.

To 1 pt. of boiled rice add, while still hot, ½ a cup of thick white sauce, the

well-beaten yolk of 1 egg, ½ of a teaspoonful of salt, 3 tablespoonfuls of

grated cheese and a dash of cayenne. Set aside until cold, then mold into

small balls dip each one into slightly-beaten egg, roll in fine bread crumbs

and fry in smoking hot fat.—From "Table Talk," Phila.

Take 4 cups of mashed potatoes, 3 cups of salt cod fish (which has

previously been freshened) picked fine, a small lump of butter and 2 well-

beaten eggs beat all together very light, put into a greased baking dish,

cover the top with cracker or bread crumbs and bits of butter brown in the

To 1 egg well-beaten, add 1 cup of milk and a pinch of salt. Dip slices of

bread into this mixture, allowing each slice to become very moist. Brown on

a hot-buttered griddle, spread with butter and serve at once.

Soak 1 cup of dry bread crumbs in fresh milk. Beat into this 3 eggs add 1

tablespoonful of butter and half a pound of grated cheese cover the top with

grated crumbs and bake until well-browned. Serve with cold tongue.

13. Lobster a la Mode Francaise

Pick out the meat of one boiled lobster cut into small bits. Put four tablespoonfuls of white stock, two tablespoonfuls of cream, a little pounded

mace, cayenne and salt into a stewpan. When hot, add the lobster and

simmer for six minutes. Serve in shells. Cover with bread crumbs place

small bits of butter over, and brown.

Slice and cut into fancy shapes cold boiled beets heap them in a salad bowl

cover with a thin sauce tartar. Garnish with young lettuce leaves.

15. Puree of Dried Beans

Mash and soak 1 qt. of dried beans in lukewarm water over night. In the

morning drain and cover with fresh cold water, boil an hour, drain again

just cover with fresh water add quarter of a teaspoonful of cooking soda, 1

lb. of ham, a bay leaf, an onion and a carrot boil until soft. When done, take

out the ham and press the vegetables, (onion, carrot and beans) through a

sieve. Return them to the kettle, add a tablespoonful of butter and enough

milk to make the required thickness. Season with salt and pepper. Let boil

Take 6 beef sweetbreads, parboil and cut fine. Mix well with mayonnaise

dressing, pile on lettuce leaves, garnish with hard boiled egg.

Cut stale bread a third of an inch thick and cut out with a small round cutter,

and fry a golden-brown in butter or lard boil two eggs hard, bone and fillet

the anchovies and curl two fillets on each piece of toast and fill up the

center with the white of the eggs chopped fine and the yellow rubbed

18. Beef Bubble and Squeak (English)

Fry thin slices of cold roast beef, taking care not to dry them up. Lay them

on a flat dish and cover with fried greens. The greens are prepared from

young cabbage, which should be boiled until tender, well drained and

minced fine and placed until quite hot, in a frying-pan, with butter, a slice of

onion and season with salt and pepper.

Have a well-seasoned plank about 2 ft. long and 1½ wide, hickory is the

best wood. Clean the fish, split it open and tack it to the plank with four

good-sized tacks, skin side to the board. Dredge it with salt and pepper. Put

the plank before the fire with the large end down. Then change and put the

small end down when done spread with butter and serve just as it is.

Make a sauce with 2 tablespoonfuls each of butter and flour and half a cup

each of thin cream, white stock and milk. Melt in this half a pound of grated

cheese, add a dash of salt and paprika and pour over three whole eggs and

the yolks of 4 beaten until a spoonful can be taken up. Turn into buttered

timbale molds and bake standing in a pan of hot water (the water should not

boil), until the centers are firm. Serve hot with cream or tomato sauce.—

Janet M. Hill, in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

21. Angels on Horseback

Cut the required amount of bacon into little squares (large enough to roll an

oyster in), sprinkle over each one some finely chopped parsley, lay on the

oysters, season with pepper and lemon juice, roll up and fasten with a

skewer and fry in butter until the bacon is cooked. Cut stale bread into

squares and fry a golden-brown and lay on each slice an oyster. Serve very

Boil a bunch of asparagus and when tender cut the green ends into very

small pieces, mix them with four well-beaten eggs and add a little salt and

pepper. Melt a piece of butter, about two ounces, in an omelet-pan, pour in

the mixture, stir until it thickens, fold over and serve with clear brown

Have two pounds of rump steak, cut thin, and divide it into pieces about 3

inches long beat these with the blade of a knife and dredge with flour. Put

them in a frying-pan with a tablespoon of butter and let them fry for three

minutes, then lay them in a small stewpan and pour over them the gravy,

add a little more butter mixed smooth with a little flour, and a small onion

chopped fine, a pickled walnut and 1 teaspoonful of capers.

Simmer for ten minutes and serve in a covered dish.

Cut lengthwise 3 bananas, roll them in flour and fry in butter until a light-

brown. Serve with cold duck.

25. Philadelphia Relish

Mix 2 cups of shredded cabbage, 2 green peppers, cut in shreds or finely

chopped, 1 teaspoonful of celery seed, ¼ of a teaspoonful of mustard seed,

½ a teaspoonful of salt, ¼ of a cup of brown sugar, and ¼ of a cup of

vinegar.—Janet M. Hill, in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

Boil 3 ozs. of butter in ½ a pint of water and add flour enough to make the

mixture stiff enough to leave the sides of the pan, then add the yolks of

three eggs and beat the mixture well.

When cold, add the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, with one

dessertspoonful of sugar and a flavoring of vanilla fry in spoonfuls in hot

fat. Serve at once. Grated cheese and cayenne pepper may be substituted for

Chop equal quantities of celery and apples, quite fine. Serve on lettuce

leaves, with French dressing.

Mince a pound of cold beef fine and mix with this three-quarters of a pound

of bread crumbs, seasoned with salt and pepper and 1 teaspoonful of minced

lemon peel. Make all into a thick paste with one or two eggs, form into balls

and fry a golden-brown. Garnish with parsley and serve a brown sauce with

29. Potatoes Cooked in Stock

Pare and slice six large potatoes, put in a saucepan, cover with stock,

season, cook until potatoes are tender, add tablespoon butter and the same

of chopped parsley. Stir carefully and serve with cold meat.

Boil ½ a lb. of rice. Dry it well and fry it with a little butter until lightly

browned. Stir into it two large toasted tomatoes and a tablespoonful of

grated cheese. Season with pepper and salt. Serve very hot.

Take 1 qt. of clams and chop them fine. Fry two slices of salt pork in an iron

pot. When the fat is fried out, take the brittle out, put into the fat 2 slices of

onion, then a layer of sliced potatoes, then a layer of chopped clams,

sprinkle well with salt and pepper, then a layer of onion, then the bits of

fried pork, cut into small pieces, add a layer of broken crackers. Do this

until all is used. Then add the clam liquor and enough water to cover. Cook

20 minutes. Add 2 cups of hot milk just before serving. Use for this 6 large

crackers, 1 onion, 6 potatoes, 1 qt. Clams.

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1. Stuffed Fillets of Flounders

Take fillets from a flounder weighing 2½ lbs., season with salt and pepper,

and a few drops of onion juice, if desired. Spread on one half of each fillet a

tablespoonful of mashed potato (about 1 cup should be prepared) mixed

with the beaten yolk of an egg, and seasoned with 1 tablespoonful of butter,

¼ of a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper. Fold the other half of each

fillet over the potato, cover with crumbs, dip in the white of egg beaten with

2 tablespoonfuls of water, and again cover with crumbs and fry in deep fat.

Drain on soft paper, then insert a short piece of macaroni in the pointed end

of each fillet and cover this with a paper frill. Garnish and serve with tomato sauce.—Janet M. Hill, in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

2. Mutton Stew with Canned Peas

Cut a breast of mutton into small pieces dredge with flour and sauté to a

golden brown in drippings or the fat of salt pork cover with boiling water

and let simmer until tender, seasoning with salt and pepper during the latter

part of the cooking. Take out the meat, skim off the fat and add one can of

peas drained, reheated in boiling water, and drained again add more

seasoning, if needed, and pour over the mutton on the serving-dish.—Janet

M. Hill, in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

Bake 4 large potatoes when soft scoop out the inside and rub through a fine

sieve. Boil an oz. of butter and a quarter of a pint of milk add the yolks of

three eggs, one by one, beating well together with a wooden spoon. Beat the

whites of the eggs and a pinch of salt in another dish, mix all together

carefully, and bake in a well-greased tin, in a hot oven until it rises well, and

is a pale brown in color. The tin should be only ½ full. If it is desired for a

dessert add 15 drops of vanilla, and sugar to taste.

4. Stewed Kidney with Macaroni

Take 3 kidneys, skin them, remove the fat and cut into thin slices, season

with salt, cayenne, and minced herbs fry on both sides in butter, then stew

in ½ a pt. of gravy flavored with tomatoes. Turn in a dish and cover the top

with 2 ozs. of boiled macaroni sprinkle some Parmesan cheese over the top

Spread bread cut for sandwiches with chopped ham, season with a little

made mustard and press together in pairs. Beat an egg, add ½ a cup of rich

milk, and in the mixture soak the sandwiches a few moments. Heat a

tablespoonful of butter, and in this brown the sandwiches, first on one side

and then on the other. Drain on soft paper and serve at once.—Janet M. Hill,

in "Boston Cooking School Magazine."

Cook 1/3 of a cupful of stale bread-crumbs in 1/3 of a cupful of milk to a

smooth paste. Add to it 1 cup lean ham, chopped fine, 1 teaspoonful made

mustard, ½ a saltspoonful cayenne pepper, and mix smooth with 1 raw egg.

Remove the shells from 6 hard-boiled eggs, and cover them with this

mixture. Fry in hot fat until brown, drain, and serve hot or cold on a bed of

7. Lobster in a Chafing Dish

Cut a small boiled lobster into small pieces, pour over them four

tablespoonfuls of lemon juice, add salt and pepper, and mix well. Melt 2

tablespoonfuls of butter in the chafing dish, add the lobster and serve hot.

8. Asparagus a l'Indienne

Make a curry sauce as in curried macaroni, and heat in it a cup of asparagus

tips. Serve with sippets of toast.—Janet M. Hill, in "Boston Cooking School

Mix 2 teaspoonfuls of baking powder with 1 pt. of flour. Rub it into a half

cup of butter, add 1 cup of sweet milk. Bake quickly. Have prepared nice

pieces of cold chicken, heat with gravy or a little soup stock, season well.

Add some chopped parsley, pour over the short-cake and serve at once.

Sift together 3 cups of sifted flour and a teaspoonful of salt. Beat the yolks

of three eggs until very light, add 1 pt. of milk and stir into the dry ingredients. Then beat the whites of three eggs, beaten dry. Bake in small

buttered tins in a very hot oven.—Janet M. Hill, in "Boston Cooking School

11. Veal and Tomato Salad

Take thick slices of cold veal and remove all the fat. Cut into dice, chop up

tomatoes in the same sized pieces. Mix well and cover with mayonnaise.

Take the meat out of a boiled lobster in large pieces. Dip each piece in egg,

then in bread-crumbs. Fry in deep, hot fat. Serve with tartar sauce.

Boil 6 crabs, pick the meat out carefully, arrange a head of lettuce on a

round platter. Put the crab meat in the center, cover with mayonnaise

Mince cold boiled tongue fine mix it well with cream and to every ½ pint

of the mixture allow the well-beaten yolks of 2 eggs place over the fire and

let it simmer a few minutes. Serve on hot buttered toast.

Take two cups of mashed potato, form into balls, dip them into beaten egg,

then into bread crumbs fry in deep fat, stick a piece of the green stem of

16. Fried Corn-Meal Gems

Pour 1 pt. of boiling water on 1 pt. of corn-meal, add 1 teaspoonful of salt

and 1 heaping tablespoonful of sugar. Beat well and set away until morning

in a cool place. When ready to use add 2 well-beaten eggs and 1 heaping

tablespoonful of flour. Drop by spoonful into boiling fat. Cook ten minutes.

Boil 6 eggs for 20 minutes, take the shell off, and when cold cover with the

following: Cook ½ a cupful of stale bread crumbs and ½ a cupful of milk

together until a smooth paste. Add 1 cupful of cooked lean ham chopped

very fine, salt and pepper, and 1 beaten egg. Mix well and cover the hard

boiled eggs with it. Fry in a frying basket in boiling lard for a minute.

Into a saucepan put the meat from a boiled lobster (broken into small

pieces) and ½ a cup of gravy and ½ a cup of cream or milk, and half a blade

of mace. Mix 2 teaspoonfuls of curry powder with one teaspoonful of flour

and 1 oz. of butter add this to the lobster and simmer for ½ hour. After it is

done add a squeeze of lemon juice and a little salt. Serve hot.

Boil together ¼ of a cup of water and 2 ozs. of butter, then shake in 2 ozs.

of flour, stirring all the time it must be well cooked. Add 2 ozs. of grated

Parmesan cheese, salt and cayenne, stir well and mix in by degrees 2 well-

beaten eggs. Drop this mixture by the spoonful into hot boiling fat and fry a

golden brown and serve at once.

Crack ½ a pound of English walnuts very carefully, to keep them in halves,

make little balls of cream cheese and put half a walnut on each side (like the

cream walnut candy) lay them on lettuce leaves, pour a French dressing

over and serve with hot toasted crackers.

Mix 1 tablespoonful of grated horse radish, 1 teaspoonful of made mustard,

1 teaspoonful of sugar, 4 tablespoonfuls of vinegar pour over slices of hot

22. Rice Border with Creamed Fish

Put one cupful of rice on to boil in 3 cupfuls of water. When it has been

boiling for half an hour, add 2 tablespoonfuls of butter and a teaspoonful of

salt. Let it just simmer for an hour. Mash it fine with a spoon and add 2

well-beaten eggs, and stir for 5 minutes. Butter a border mold and fill with

the rice. Put in the oven for a few minutes. Turn out on a hot dish and fill

the center with creamed fish.

A lb. of flour, ¼ of a lb. of butter, 2 ozs. of sugar, 3 eggs, ½ a pint of milk,

½ a gill of yeast. Melt the butter and sugar in the milk and mix several hours

Watch the video: Fillet Steak with Mustard and (December 2021).